Russia Population

Population now

144,313,662
  • World: 9th
  • Europe: 1st
Male:66,895,788(46.36 %)
Female:77,417,874(53.64 %)
Births in 2021:1,503,593
Deaths in 2021:1,589,193

Life expectancy & Rates (2021)

Male:67.33 years
Female:77.92 years
Total:72.50 years
Median Age:38.83 years
Birth Rate:12.12
Death Rate:12.81
Growth Rate:-0.05 %
Fertility Rate:1.83

Population Data Graphs

  • Total population
  • Birth & Death rate
  • Life expectancy
  • Median Age
  • Population structure (mid 2021)
  • Urbanization

Russia Population Review

Russia, which is also known as the Russian Federation, is located in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the world’s largest country landmass and covers 17.1 million square miles, making it 7.2 million square miles larger than the second-largest country, Canada. It stretches across 11 time zones and shares a land border with 14 different countries. It is home to over 145 million people but, due to the country’s size, is sparsely populated. Overall, Russia has a population density of 9 people per square kilometer, making it one of the least densely populated countries in the world.

An urban-based population, with a twist

Due to its northern location, much of Russia’s weather is harsh and unrelenting. This makes it difficult to farm and maintain a consistent flow of supplies. For this reason, over 73% of the population choose to live in urban areas. Russia’s largest cities, Moscow and St. Petersburg, have over 17 million residents between them. However, recent studies have shown that Russia may be emptying from within, with more of the population choosing to “de-urbanize” and move to the countryside. The first wave of this was noticed in the early 2000s as urban populations dipped in favor of rural living. While the trend towards urbanization continues to rise, the increase has plateaued much more than it did in the 1960s and 70s.

There is also a huge trend towards seasonal deurbanization in Russia. It’s long been a common tradition in Russia for families to maintain a dacha—a simple, country home—alongside their home in the city. Russian families may decamp to their dacha in the warmer months where they may keep a garden an a few goats. The maintenance of these dachas has created a secondary type of suburbanization/deurbanization that has slowed the typical deurbanization seen in developing countries.

A dropping growth rate

Russia’s relatively small population is in decline. With a current growth rate of -0.05%, it’s predicted that Russia’s population will drop to around 132 million by 2050—a decrease of almost 12 million people. So what is causing Russia’s decline? One key reason is a ‘war echo’. While it may seem that WWII is in the distant past, the devastating loss of life the Soviet Union took during those years created a “hole” in the countries growth. The death of 25 to 30 million people meant that people who died in the early 1940s didn’t have children. The absence of these people and whatever children they may have had caused a population downturn in the 1960s, then again in the 1990s, and now Russia faces it’s third population echo of war.

Even when Russia recovers from the war echo, it faces what many developed countries now face: a low birth rate. There is currently no developed country in the world where families are, on average, having two of more children. Because of this, citizen-based population growth in developed countries has simply stopped.

A plan to attract immigrants

President Vladimir Putin has put into place plans to increase the amount of Russian-speaking migrants to help offset the country’s declining population. The goal of this plan is to attract up to 10 million migrants between 2019 and 2025. While Russia did see some promising figures in 2019, with 98,000 migrants recorded in the country, this was seen as an anomaly. Currently, the majority of Russia’s immigrants come from neighbouring countries like Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Tajikistan. Unfortunately, even if this plan succeeded, the fast that 17 to 20% of Russians are seeking to permanently move to another country could hinder the country’s plan to bolster their shrinking population.

Review Updated: April 29, 2020

Russia Population History

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YearTotalMaleFemaleSex RatioGrowth rateBirth rateDeath rateFerti­lity rate
Life exp., total
Life expectancy
Life exp., maleLife exp., femaleMedian AgeUrbani­zation
Density, people / km2
Density, people/km2
1960120M54M66M0.811.87%23.798.302.5266.0662.0770.2426.2053.73%7.01
1961121M54M67M0.821.78%22.738.182.4566.6062.5870.8226.5054.63%7.09
1962123M55M67M0.821.66%21.548.102.3667.0262.9671.2926.8155.52%7.17
1963124M56M68M0.821.51%20.268.072.2767.3463.2271.6727.1056.41%7.25
1964125M57M69M0.831.34%18.948.082.1867.5763.3771.9827.3657.29%7.33
1965127M57M69M0.831.17%17.688.132.1367.7263.4372.2227.6258.17%7.41
1966127M58M70M0.831.02%16.588.222.1067.8163.4372.4127.9659.05%7.45
1967128M58M70M0.830.88%15.718.342.0467.8663.3972.5628.4359.92%7.50
1968129M59M70M0.840.78%15.108.491.9967.8763.3172.6729.0660.78%7.54
1969130M59M71M0.840.70%14.768.661.9767.8763.2172.7629.5061.64%7.58
1970130M60M71M0.840.66%14.678.851.9968.1363.0873.4429.7662.47%7.63
1971131M60M71M0.840.63%14.779.052.0368.3863.2473.7729.9463.28%7.67
1972132M60M72M0.840.62%14.969.262.0468.3163.2573.6229.9764.08%7.71
1973133M61M72M0.840.60%15.179.472.0168.2963.2873.5629.8864.87%7.76
1974133M61M72M0.840.59%15.369.692.0068.3263.1373.7729.7865.65%7.80
1975134M62M73M0.850.57%15.519.911.9867.7262.4873.2329.8366.43%7.85
1976135M62M73M0.850.54%15.6410.131.9767.4962.1973.0529.7567.19%7.90
1977136M63M74M0.850.52%15.7810.351.9567.3861.8373.2029.8667.95%7.96
1978137M63M74M0.850.51%15.9510.571.9267.3961.8373.2330.0668.70%8.02
1979138M64M74M0.850.46%15.8010.801.9067.1161.4973.0230.2469.31%8.07
1980139M64M75M0.860.45%15.9011.001.8967.0361.3972.9630.3969.75%8.13
1981140M65M75M0.860.47%16.0010.901.9167.2661.6273.1930.5470.19%8.18
1982141M65M76M0.860.55%16.6010.702.0467.8162.2573.6430.6770.63%8.24
1983142M66M76M0.860.58%17.5011.102.1167.6562.1673.4230.8271.07%8.28
1984143M66M77M0.860.46%16.9011.602.0667.2061.7172.9730.9871.50%8.35
1985144M67M77M0.870.47%16.6011.302.0567.8662.7373.2431.1771.92%8.41
1986145M67M78M0.870.65%17.2010.402.1569.3964.7874.2331.3672.35%8.47
1987146M68M78M0.870.64%17.2010.502.2269.4464.8474.2731.5772.77%8.53
1988147M69M78M0.880.50%16.0010.702.1269.4664.6474.5331.8173.18%8.59
1989148M69M79M0.880.36%14.6010.702.0169.1764.2474.3532.0673.40%8.64
1990148M69M79M0.880.20%13.4011.201.8968.8963.7374.3032.3673.39%8.65
1991148M70M79M0.880.06%12.1011.401.7368.4763.4573.7532.6073.39%8.68
1992149M70M79M0.88-0.12%10.7012.201.5566.8762.0071.9932.9273.39%8.69
1993148M70M79M0.88-0.35%9.4014.501.3964.9458.9771.2033.2973.38%8.68
1994148M70M79M0.88-0.39%9.5015.701.4064.4757.5571.7333.6673.38%8.68
1995148M70M79M0.88-0.38%9.3015.001.3464.6958.1271.5934.0273.37%8.68
1996148M69M79M0.88-0.37%8.9014.201.2765.8559.6272.4034.4073.37%8.66
1997148M69M79M0.88-0.38%8.6013.801.2266.7060.8572.8434.7173.36%8.65
1998148M69M78M0.88-0.35%8.8013.501.2367.0361.2273.1334.9773.36%8.64
1999147M69M78M0.88-0.43%8.3014.601.1665.9859.8772.4035.2373.35%8.61
2000147M69M78M0.88-0.43%9.8017.101.2065.4859.0372.2635.5073.35%8.57
2001146M68M78M0.88-0.42%10.0017.301.2265.3858.9272.1735.6773.35%8.54
2002145M68M77M0.88-0.42%10.5018.201.2965.1358.6871.9035.8573.34%8.50
2003145M67M77M0.87-0.40%11.1018.401.3265.0358.5371.8536.0373.37%8.46
2004144M67M77M0.87-0.38%11.2018.101.3465.4758.9172.3636.1873.42%8.42
2005144M67M77M0.87-0.41%11.0018.601.2965.5358.9272.4736.3173.46%8.39
2006143M67M77M0.87-0.34%11.4017.401.3166.7360.4373.3436.5173.51%8.37
2007143M66M76M0.87-0.23%12.9016.701.4267.5961.4674.0236.6873.55%8.35
2008143M66M76M0.87-0.18%13.7016.701.5067.9561.9274.2836.8173.60%8.35
2009143M66M77M0.87-0.15%13.9016.301.5468.6862.8774.7936.9173.64%8.35
2010143M66M77M0.86-0.13%14.0016.101.5768.8463.0974.8836.9973.69%8.35
2011143M66M77M0.86-0.07%14.1015.201.5869.6864.0475.6137.1273.73%8.36
2012143M66M77M0.86-0.01%14.7014.801.6970.0764.5675.8637.2473.79%8.37
2013144M66M77M0.86?14.5014.501.7170.5865.1376.3037.3673.86%8.39
2014144M67M77M0.86-0.01%14.4014.501.7570.7465.2976.4737.5073.95%8.41
2015144M67M77M0.86-0.11%12.8014.401.7871.1865.9276.7137.6574.05%8.43
2016144M67M77M0.86-0.14%12.2014.201.7671.6566.5077.0637.8174.16%8.44
2017144M67M78M0.86-0.18%11.2013.701.6272.4567.5177.6437.9874.29%8.45
2018144M67M78M0.86-0.21%10.7013.601.5872.6667.7577.8238.1774.43%8.45
2019144M67M77M0.86-0.26%9.8013.301.5073.0868.2478.1738.3774.59%8.44
2020144M67M77M0.86-0.05%12.1212.811.8372.5067.3377.9238.5974.75%8.44
2021144M67M77M0.86-0.05%12.1212.811.8372.5067.3377.9238.8374.93%8.44

Russia Population Projections

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  • 10 years
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YearTotalMaleFemaleSex RatioGrowth rateBirth rateDeath rateFerti­lity rate
Life exp., total
Life expectancy
Life exp., maleLife exp., femaleMedian AgeUrbani­zation
Density, people / km2
Density, people/km2
2022144M67M77M0.86-0.11%11.5512.961.8372.7567.6178.1439.1075.13%8.43
2023144M67M77M0.86-0.14%11.2613.041.8372.8767.7678.2439.3975.33%8.42
2024144M67M77M0.86-0.16%10.9813.111.8373.0067.9078.3539.7075.55%8.41
2025144M67M77M0.86-0.19%10.6913.191.8373.1268.0478.4640.0275.78%8.39
2026143M66M77M0.86-0.21%10.5413.261.8373.2668.2178.5840.3776.02%8.38
2027143M66M77M0.86-0.22%10.4013.331.8373.4168.3778.7040.7176.27%8.36
2028143M66M76M0.87-0.24%10.2513.401.8373.5568.5478.8241.0576.53%8.34
2029142M66M76M0.87-0.25%10.1113.471.8373.7068.7078.9441.3676.80%8.32
2030142M66M76M0.87-0.26%9.9613.541.8373.8468.8779.0641.6677.08%8.29
2031141M66M76M0.87-0.27%10.0013.631.8373.9969.0479.1841.9477.38%8.26
2032141M65M75M0.87-0.27%10.0413.721.8374.1369.2279.2942.2377.68%8.24
2033140M65M75M0.87-0.27%10.0813.821.8374.2869.3979.4142.5277.99%8.21
2034140M65M75M0.87-0.27%10.1213.911.8374.4269.5779.5242.8078.31%8.18
2035139M65M75M0.87-0.27%10.1614.001.8374.5769.7479.6443.0378.63%8.15
2036139M65M74M0.87-0.27%10.3214.081.8374.7269.9279.7643.1878.96%8.12
2037138M64M74M0.87-0.26%10.4714.171.8374.8770.1079.8743.2479.30%8.09
2038138M64M74M0.87-0.25%10.6314.251.8375.0170.2779.9943.2179.63%8.07
2039138M64M74M0.87-0.25%10.7814.341.8375.1670.4580.1043.0979.96%8.04
2040137M64M73M0.87-0.24%10.9414.421.8375.3170.6380.2242.9180.29%8.02
2041137M64M73M0.87-0.23%11.0714.451.8375.4670.8180.3442.6480.61%7.99
2042136M64M73M0.87-0.23%11.2014.491.8375.6170.9980.4542.3380.93%7.97
2043136M63M73M0.87-0.22%11.3314.521.8375.7571.1780.5742.0081.24%7.95
2044136M63M72M0.88-0.21%11.4614.561.8375.9071.3580.6841.7081.55%7.93
2045135M63M72M0.88-0.21%11.5914.591.8376.0571.5380.8041.4381.86%7.91
2046135M63M72M0.88-0.20%11.6014.561.8376.2071.7280.9141.2182.16%7.89
2047135M63M72M0.88-0.20%11.6014.541.8376.3571.9081.0241.0382.46%7.88
2048134M63M71M0.88-0.20%11.6114.511.8376.5072.0981.1440.8982.75%7.86
2049134M63M71M0.88-0.20%11.6114.491.8376.6572.2781.2540.7983.04%7.85
2050134M63M71M0.89-0.20%11.6214.461.8376.8072.4681.3640.7483.33%7.84

Highest City Populations in Russia

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RankCityPopulation, Urban AreaPopulation, City
1Moscow12,585,28410,381,222
2Saint Petersburg5,498,9505,028,000
3Novosibirsk1,674,3171,419,007
4Yekaterinburg1,511,7371,349,772
5Kazan1,278,8781,104,738
6Nizhniy Novgorod1,255,4211,255,000
7Chelyabinsk1,232,2991,062,919
8Omsk1,182,0001,129,281
9Samara1,160,4211,134,730
10Krasnoyarsk1,147,317927,200
11Ufa1,139,4391,033,338
12Rostov-on-Don1,136,8601,074,482
13Perm1,074,439982,419
14Voronezh1,072,299848,752
15Volgograd1,001,5611,001,000
16Krasnodar971,615649,851
17Tyumen863,633519,119
18Saratov841,281841,000
19Tolyatti697,421697,000
20Izhevsk651,860631,038
21Irkutsk641,579586,695
22Barnaul640,000599,579
23Khabarovsk635,579579,000
24Ulyanovsk624,140624,000
25Yaroslavl612,860606,730
26Vladivostok610,000587,022
27Makhachkala600,860497,959
28Tomsk599,439485,519
29Orenburg569,000550,204
30Kemerovo566,860477,090
31Novokuznetsk549,281539,616
32Ryazan540,000520,173
33Astrakhan535,000502,533
34Naberezhnyye Chelny535,000509,870
35Balashikha527,896150,103
36Penza522,140512,602
37Kirov514,719457,383
38Cheboksary508,579446,781
39Lipetsk506,140506,000
40Kaliningrad486,579434,954
41Tula470,421468,825
42Kursk467,579409,431
43Sochi457,737327,608
44Stavropol452,579363,064
45Ulan-Ude445,719360,278
46Tver425,000400,212
47Magnitogorsk421,000413,351
48Belgorod410,579345,289
49Ivanovo402,140402,000
50Surgut396,018300,367
51Bryansk396,421396,000
52Vladimir359,000310,024
53Chita358,719308,500
54Kaluga349,860338,978
55Arkhangelsk349,140349,000
56Nizhny Tagil348,281348,000
57Yakutsk331,439235,600
58Volzhskiy330,000323,293
59Podolsk329,158179,400
60Smolensk328,140320,991
61Saransk322,860303,394
62Cherepovets320,000315,738
63Vologda317,000314,900
64Orel316,140316,000
65Kurgan311,421311,000
66Vladikavkaz301,140301,000

Map of Russia

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