Russia Population

Population now

143,234,245
  • World: 9th
  • Europe: 1st
Male:66,407,430(46.36 %)
Female:76,825,404(53.64 %)
Births in 2022:1,982,218
Deaths in 2022:2,953,100

Life expectancy & Rates (2022)

Male:66.49 years
Female:76.43 years
Total:71.34 years
Median Age:39.10 years
Birth Rate:9.80
Death Rate:14.60
Growth Rate:-0.33 %
Fertility Rate:1.51

Population Data Graphs

  • Total population
  • Birth & Death rate
  • Life expectancy
  • Median Age
  • Population structure (mid 2022)
  • Urbanization

Russia Population Review

Russia, which is also known as the Russian Federation, is located in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the world’s largest country landmass and covers 17.1 million square miles, making it 7.2 million square miles larger than the second-largest country, Canada. It stretches across 11 time zones and shares a land border with 14 different countries. It is home to over 145 million people but, due to the country’s size, is sparsely populated. Overall, Russia has a population density of 9 people per square kilometer, making it one of the least densely populated countries in the world.

An urban-based population, with a twist

Due to its northern location, much of Russia’s weather is harsh and unrelenting. This makes it difficult to farm and maintain a consistent flow of supplies. For this reason, over 73% of the population choose to live in urban areas. Russia’s largest cities, Moscow and St. Petersburg, have over 17 million residents between them. However, recent studies have shown that Russia may be emptying from within, with more of the population choosing to “de-urbanize” and move to the countryside. The first wave of this was noticed in the early 2000s as urban populations dipped in favor of rural living. While the trend towards urbanization continues to rise, the increase has plateaued much more than it did in the 1960s and 70s.

There is also a huge trend towards seasonal deurbanization in Russia. It’s long been a common tradition in Russia for families to maintain a dacha—a simple, country home—alongside their home in the city. Russian families may decamp to their dacha in the warmer months where they may keep a garden an a few goats. The maintenance of these dachas has created a secondary type of suburbanization/deurbanization that has slowed the typical deurbanization seen in developing countries.

A dropping growth rate

Russia’s relatively small population is in decline. With a current growth rate of -0.05%, it’s predicted that Russia’s population will drop to around 132 million by 2050—a decrease of almost 12 million people. So what is causing Russia’s decline? One key reason is a ‘war echo’. While it may seem that WWII is in the distant past, the devastating loss of life the Soviet Union took during those years created a “hole” in the countries growth. The death of 25 to 30 million people meant that people who died in the early 1940s didn’t have children. The absence of these people and whatever children they may have had caused a population downturn in the 1960s, then again in the 1990s, and now Russia faces it’s third population echo of war.

Even when Russia recovers from the war echo, it faces what many developed countries now face: a low birth rate. There is currently no developed country in the world where families are, on average, having two of more children. Because of this, citizen-based population growth in developed countries has simply stopped.

A plan to attract immigrants

President Vladimir Putin has put into place plans to increase the amount of Russian-speaking migrants to help offset the country’s declining population. The goal of this plan is to attract up to 10 million migrants between 2019 and 2025. While Russia did see some promising figures in 2019, with 98,000 migrants recorded in the country, this was seen as an anomaly. Currently, the majority of Russia’s immigrants come from neighbouring countries like Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Tajikistan. Unfortunately, even if this plan succeeded, the fast that 17 to 20% of Russians are seeking to permanently move to another country could hinder the country’s plan to bolster their shrinking population.

Review Updated: April 29, 2020

Russia Population History

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YearTotalMaleFemaleSex RatioGrowth rateBirth rateDeath rateFerti­lity rate
Life exp., total
Life expectancy
Life exp., maleLife exp., femaleMedian AgeUrbani­zation
Density, people / km2
Density, people/km2
1960120M54M66M0.811.87%23.798.302.5266.0662.0770.2426.2053.73%7.01
1961121M54M67M0.821.78%22.738.182.4566.6062.5870.8226.5054.63%7.09
1962123M55M67M0.821.66%21.548.102.3667.0262.9671.2926.8155.52%7.17
1963124M56M68M0.821.51%20.268.072.2767.3463.2271.6727.1056.41%7.25
1964125M57M69M0.831.34%18.948.082.1867.5763.3771.9827.3657.29%7.33
1965127M57M69M0.831.17%17.688.132.1367.7263.4372.2227.6258.17%7.41
1966127M58M70M0.831.02%16.588.222.1067.8163.4372.4127.9659.05%7.45
1967128M58M70M0.830.88%15.718.342.0467.8663.3972.5628.4359.92%7.50
1968129M59M70M0.840.78%15.108.491.9967.8763.3172.6729.0660.78%7.54
1969130M59M71M0.840.70%14.768.661.9767.8763.2172.7629.5061.64%7.58
1970130M60M71M0.840.66%14.678.851.9968.1363.0873.4429.7662.47%7.63
1971131M60M71M0.840.63%14.779.052.0368.3863.2473.7729.9463.28%7.67
1972132M60M72M0.840.62%14.969.262.0468.3163.2573.6229.9764.08%7.71
1973133M61M72M0.840.60%15.179.472.0168.2963.2873.5629.8864.87%7.76
1974133M61M72M0.840.59%15.369.692.0068.3263.1373.7729.7865.65%7.80
1975134M62M73M0.850.57%15.519.911.9867.7262.4873.2329.8366.43%7.85
1976135M62M73M0.850.54%15.6410.131.9767.4962.1973.0529.7567.19%7.90
1977136M63M74M0.850.52%15.7810.351.9567.3861.8373.2029.8667.95%7.96
1978137M63M74M0.850.51%15.9510.571.9267.3961.8373.2330.0668.70%8.02
1979138M64M74M0.850.46%15.8010.801.9067.1161.4973.0230.2469.31%8.07
1980139M64M75M0.860.45%15.9011.001.8967.0361.3972.9630.3969.75%8.13
1981140M65M75M0.860.47%16.0010.901.9167.2661.6273.1930.5470.19%8.18
1982141M65M76M0.860.55%16.6010.702.0467.8162.2573.6430.6770.63%8.24
1983142M66M76M0.860.58%17.5011.102.1167.6562.1673.4230.8271.07%8.28
1984143M66M77M0.860.46%16.9011.602.0667.2061.7172.9730.9871.50%8.35
1985144M67M77M0.870.47%16.6011.302.0567.8662.7373.2431.1771.92%8.41
1986145M67M78M0.870.65%17.2010.402.1569.3964.7874.2331.3672.35%8.47
1987146M68M78M0.870.64%17.2010.502.2269.4464.8474.2731.5772.77%8.53
1988147M69M78M0.880.50%16.0010.702.1269.4664.6474.5331.8173.18%8.59
1989148M69M79M0.880.36%14.6010.702.0169.1764.2474.3532.0673.40%8.64
1990148M69M79M0.880.20%13.4011.201.8968.8963.7374.3032.3673.39%8.65
1991148M70M79M0.880.06%12.1011.401.7368.4763.4573.7532.6073.39%8.68
1992149M70M79M0.88-0.12%10.7012.201.5566.8762.0071.9932.9273.39%8.69
1993148M70M79M0.88-0.35%9.4014.501.3964.9458.9771.2033.2973.38%8.68
1994148M70M79M0.88-0.39%9.5015.701.4064.4757.5571.7333.6673.38%8.68
1995148M70M79M0.88-0.38%9.3015.001.3464.6958.1271.5934.0273.37%8.68
1996148M69M79M0.88-0.37%8.9014.201.2765.8559.6272.4034.4073.37%8.66
1997148M69M79M0.88-0.38%8.6013.801.2266.7060.8572.8434.7173.36%8.65
1998148M69M78M0.88-0.35%8.8013.501.2367.0361.2273.1334.9773.36%8.64
1999147M69M78M0.88-0.43%8.3014.601.1665.9859.8772.4035.2373.35%8.61
2000147M69M78M0.88-0.43%8.7015.301.2065.4859.0372.2635.5073.35%8.57
2001146M68M78M0.88-0.42%9.0015.601.2265.3858.9272.1735.6773.35%8.54
2002145M68M77M0.88-0.40%9.7016.201.2965.1358.6871.9035.8573.34%8.50
2003145M67M77M0.87-0.38%10.2016.401.3265.0358.5371.8536.0373.37%8.46
2004144M67M77M0.87-0.35%10.4015.901.3465.4758.9172.3636.1873.42%8.42
2005144M67M77M0.87-0.37%10.2016.101.2965.5358.9272.4736.3173.46%8.39
2006143M67M77M0.87-0.32%10.3015.101.3166.7360.4373.3436.5173.51%8.37
2007143M66M76M0.87-0.23%11.3014.601.4267.5961.4674.0236.6873.55%8.35
2008143M66M76M0.87-0.17%12.0014.501.5067.9561.9274.2836.8173.60%8.35
2009143M66M77M0.87-0.13%12.3014.101.5468.6862.8774.7936.9173.64%8.35
2010143M66M77M0.86-0.12%12.5014.201.5768.8463.0974.8836.9973.69%8.35
2011143M66M77M0.86-0.07%12.6013.501.5869.6864.0475.6137.1273.73%8.36
2012143M66M77M0.86?13.3013.301.6970.0764.5675.8637.2473.79%8.37
2013144M66M77M0.860.02%13.2013.001.7170.5865.1376.3037.3673.86%8.39
2014144M67M77M0.860.02%13.3013.101.7570.7465.2976.4737.5073.95%8.41
2015144M67M77M0.860.02%13.3013.001.7871.1865.9276.7137.6574.05%8.43
2016144M67M77M0.86?12.9012.901.7671.6566.5077.0637.8174.16%8.44
2017144M67M78M0.86-0.07%11.5012.401.6272.4567.5177.6437.9874.29%8.45
2018144M67M78M0.86-0.13%10.9012.501.5872.6667.7577.8238.1774.43%8.45
2019144M67M77M0.86-0.18%10.1012.301.5073.0868.2478.1738.3774.59%8.44
2020144M67M77M0.86-0.33%9.8014.601.5171.3466.4976.4338.5974.75%8.43
2021143M66M77M0.86-0.33%9.8014.601.5171.3466.4976.4338.8474.93%8.39
2022143M66M77M0.86-0.33%9.8014.601.5171.3466.4976.4339.1075.13%8.38

Russia Population Projections

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  • 10 years
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YearTotalMaleFemaleSex RatioGrowth rateBirth rateDeath rateFerti­lity rate
Life exp., total
Life expectancy
Life exp., maleLife exp., femaleMedian AgeUrbani­zation
Density, people / km2
Density, people/km2
2023143M66M77M0.86-0.25%10.3313.751.7072.4167.4277.6539.3975.33%8.37
2024143M66M77M0.86-0.22%10.5113.471.7772.7667.7378.0539.7075.55%8.36
2025143M66M76M0.86-0.19%10.6913.191.8373.1268.0478.4640.0275.78%8.34
2026142M66M76M0.86-0.21%10.5413.261.8373.2668.2178.5840.3776.02%8.32
2027142M66M76M0.86-0.22%10.4013.331.8373.4168.3778.7040.7176.27%8.31
2028142M66M76M0.87-0.24%10.2513.401.8373.5568.5478.8241.0576.53%8.28
2029141M66M76M0.87-0.25%10.1113.471.8373.7068.7078.9441.3676.80%8.26
2030141M65M76M0.87-0.26%9.9613.541.8373.8468.8779.0641.6677.08%8.24
2031140M65M75M0.87-0.27%10.0013.631.8373.9969.0479.1841.9477.38%8.21
2032140M65M75M0.87-0.27%10.0413.721.8374.1369.2279.2942.2377.68%8.18
2033139M65M75M0.87-0.27%10.0813.821.8374.2869.3979.4142.5277.99%8.16
2034139M65M74M0.87-0.27%10.1213.911.8374.4269.5779.5242.8078.31%8.13
2035138M64M74M0.87-0.27%10.1614.001.8374.5769.7479.6443.0378.63%8.10
2036138M64M74M0.87-0.27%10.3214.081.8374.7269.9279.7643.1878.96%8.07
2037138M64M74M0.87-0.26%10.4714.171.8374.8770.1079.8743.2479.30%8.04
2038137M64M73M0.87-0.25%10.6314.251.8375.0170.2779.9943.2179.63%8.02
2039137M64M73M0.87-0.25%10.7814.341.8375.1670.4580.1043.0979.96%7.99
2040136M63M73M0.87-0.24%10.9414.421.8375.3170.6380.2242.9180.29%7.96
2041136M63M73M0.87-0.23%11.0714.451.8375.4670.8180.3442.6480.61%7.94
2042135M63M72M0.87-0.23%11.2014.491.8375.6170.9980.4542.3380.93%7.92
2043135M63M72M0.87-0.22%11.3314.521.8375.7571.1780.5742.0081.24%7.90
2044135M63M72M0.88-0.21%11.4614.561.8375.9071.3580.6841.7081.55%7.88
2045134M63M72M0.88-0.21%11.5914.591.8376.0571.5380.8041.4381.86%7.86
2046134M63M71M0.88-0.20%11.6014.561.8376.2071.7280.9141.2182.16%7.85
2047134M63M71M0.88-0.20%11.6014.541.8376.3571.9081.0241.0382.46%7.83
2048134M63M71M0.88-0.20%11.6114.511.8376.5072.0981.1440.8982.75%7.82
2049133M63M71M0.88-0.20%11.6114.491.8376.6572.2781.2540.7983.04%7.80
2050133M63M71M0.89-0.20%11.6214.461.8376.8072.4681.3640.7383.33%7.79

Highest City Populations in Russia

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RankCityPopulation, Urban AreaPopulation, City
1Moscow12,660,75410,381,222
2Saint Petersburg5,549,1695,351,935
3Novosibirsk1,690,1151,612,833
4Yekaterinburg1,524,2921,495,066
5Kazan1,288,4691,243,500
6Nizhniy Novgorod1,252,1771,253,000
7Chelyabinsk1,238,6461,202,371
8Omsk1,180,5881,172,070
9Krasnoyarsk1,163,1151,090,811
10Samara1,157,1771,158,000
11Ufa1,142,8231,120,547
12Rostov-on-Don1,138,4121,130,305
13Perm1,080,646982,419
14Voronezh1,078,6461,047,549
15Volgograd996,765998,000
16Krasnodar995,173899,541
17Tyumen895,231768,358
18Saratov838,177839,000
19Tolyatti692,765694,000
20Izhevsk652,000648,213
21Irkutsk644,823623,869
22Barnaul641,412632,372
23Khabarovsk640,235618,150
24Ulyanovsk622,588623,000
25Yaroslavl613,000608,722
26Vladivostok610,000604,901
27Tomsk605,646574,002
28Makhachkala601,000596,356
29Orenburg569,000564,773
30Kemerovo568,412558,973
31Novokuznetsk547,588539,616
32Balashikha548,350150,103
33Ryazan540,000538,962
34Astrakhan535,000533,925
35Naberezhnyye Chelny535,000509,870
36Penza522,000522,000
37Kirov517,823507,155
38Cheboksary513,235492,331
39Lipetsk504,588505,000
40Kaliningrad491,235475,056
41Kursk470,823448,733
42Tula465,765467,000
43Sochi468,881327,608
44Stavropol457,235433,931
45Ulan-Ude448,823360,278
46Tver426,412420,065
47Magnitogorsk421,000413,351
48Belgorod415,235345,289
49Surgut405,469300,367
50Ivanovo399,177400,000
51Bryansk393,177394,000
52Chita361,823349,005
53Vladimir360,412357,024
54Kaluga351,412340,851
55Arkhangelsk349,000349,000
56Nizhny Tagil345,177346,000
57Yakutsk337,646235,600
58Podolsk335,646179,400
59Volzhskiy331,41231,849
60Smolensk328,000328,000
61Saransk324,412318,841
62Cherepovets320,000315,738
63Vologda318,412312,420
64Orel314,588303,696
65Kurgan308,177309,000
66Vladikavkaz298,177299,000

Map of Russia

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