Russia Population

Population now

144,013,384
  • World: 9th
  • Europe: 1st
Male:66,759,257(46.36 %)
Female:77,255,218(53.64 %)
Births in 2021:1,540,799
Deaths in 2021:2,091,084

Life expectancy & Rates (2021)

Male:68.24 years
Female:78.17 years
Total:73.08 years
Median Age:38.83 years
Birth Rate:9.80
Death Rate:13.30
Growth Rate:-0.26 %
Fertility Rate:1.50

Population Data Graphs

  • Total population
  • Birth & Death rate
  • Life expectancy
  • Median Age
  • Population structure (mid 2021)
  • Urbanization

Russia Population Review

Russia, which is also known as the Russian Federation, is located in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the world’s largest country landmass and covers 17.1 million square miles, making it 7.2 million square miles larger than the second-largest country, Canada. It stretches across 11 time zones and shares a land border with 14 different countries. It is home to over 145 million people but, due to the country’s size, is sparsely populated. Overall, Russia has a population density of 9 people per square kilometer, making it one of the least densely populated countries in the world.

An urban-based population, with a twist

Due to its northern location, much of Russia’s weather is harsh and unrelenting. This makes it difficult to farm and maintain a consistent flow of supplies. For this reason, over 73% of the population choose to live in urban areas. Russia’s largest cities, Moscow and St. Petersburg, have over 17 million residents between them. However, recent studies have shown that Russia may be emptying from within, with more of the population choosing to “de-urbanize” and move to the countryside. The first wave of this was noticed in the early 2000s as urban populations dipped in favor of rural living. While the trend towards urbanization continues to rise, the increase has plateaued much more than it did in the 1960s and 70s.

There is also a huge trend towards seasonal deurbanization in Russia. It’s long been a common tradition in Russia for families to maintain a dacha—a simple, country home—alongside their home in the city. Russian families may decamp to their dacha in the warmer months where they may keep a garden an a few goats. The maintenance of these dachas has created a secondary type of suburbanization/deurbanization that has slowed the typical deurbanization seen in developing countries.

A dropping growth rate

Russia’s relatively small population is in decline. With a current growth rate of -0.05%, it’s predicted that Russia’s population will drop to around 132 million by 2050—a decrease of almost 12 million people. So what is causing Russia’s decline? One key reason is a ‘war echo’. While it may seem that WWII is in the distant past, the devastating loss of life the Soviet Union took during those years created a “hole” in the countries growth. The death of 25 to 30 million people meant that people who died in the early 1940s didn’t have children. The absence of these people and whatever children they may have had caused a population downturn in the 1960s, then again in the 1990s, and now Russia faces it’s third population echo of war.

Even when Russia recovers from the war echo, it faces what many developed countries now face: a low birth rate. There is currently no developed country in the world where families are, on average, having two of more children. Because of this, citizen-based population growth in developed countries has simply stopped.

A plan to attract immigrants

President Vladimir Putin has put into place plans to increase the amount of Russian-speaking migrants to help offset the country’s declining population. The goal of this plan is to attract up to 10 million migrants between 2019 and 2025. While Russia did see some promising figures in 2019, with 98,000 migrants recorded in the country, this was seen as an anomaly. Currently, the majority of Russia’s immigrants come from neighbouring countries like Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Tajikistan. Unfortunately, even if this plan succeeded, the fast that 17 to 20% of Russians are seeking to permanently move to another country could hinder the country’s plan to bolster their shrinking population.

Review Updated: April 29, 2020

Russia Population History

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YearTotalMaleFemaleSex RatioGrowth rateBirth rateDeath rateFerti­lity rate
Life exp., total
Life expectancy
Life exp., maleLife exp., femaleMedian AgeUrbani­zation
Density, people / km2
Density, people/km2
1960120M54M66M0.811.87%23.798.302.5266.0662.0770.2426.2053.73%7.01
1961121M54M67M0.821.78%22.738.182.4566.6062.5870.8226.5054.63%7.09
1962123M55M67M0.821.66%21.548.102.3667.0262.9671.2926.8155.52%7.17
1963124M56M68M0.821.51%20.268.072.2767.3463.2271.6727.1056.41%7.25
1964125M57M69M0.831.34%18.948.082.1867.5763.3771.9827.3657.29%7.33
1965127M57M69M0.831.17%17.688.132.1367.7263.4372.2227.6258.17%7.41
1966127M58M70M0.831.02%16.588.222.1067.8163.4372.4127.9659.05%7.45
1967128M58M70M0.830.88%15.718.342.0467.8663.3972.5628.4359.92%7.50
1968129M59M70M0.840.78%15.108.491.9967.8763.3172.6729.0660.78%7.54
1969130M59M71M0.840.70%14.768.661.9767.8763.2172.7629.5061.64%7.58
1970130M60M71M0.840.66%14.678.851.9968.1363.0873.4429.7662.47%7.63
1971131M60M71M0.840.63%14.779.052.0368.3863.2473.7729.9463.28%7.67
1972132M60M72M0.840.62%14.969.262.0468.3163.2573.6229.9764.08%7.71
1973133M61M72M0.840.60%15.179.472.0168.2963.2873.5629.8864.87%7.76
1974133M61M72M0.840.59%15.369.692.0068.3263.1373.7729.7865.65%7.80
1975134M62M73M0.850.57%15.519.911.9867.7262.4873.2329.8366.43%7.85
1976135M62M73M0.850.54%15.6410.131.9767.4962.1973.0529.7567.19%7.90
1977136M63M74M0.850.52%15.7810.351.9567.3861.8373.2029.8667.95%7.96
1978137M63M74M0.850.51%15.9510.571.9267.3961.8373.2330.0668.70%8.02
1979138M64M74M0.850.46%15.8010.801.9067.1161.4973.0230.2469.31%8.07
1980139M64M75M0.860.45%15.9011.001.8967.0361.3972.9630.3969.75%8.13
1981140M65M75M0.860.47%16.0010.901.9167.2661.6273.1930.5470.19%8.18
1982141M65M76M0.860.55%16.6010.702.0467.8162.2573.6430.6770.63%8.24
1983142M66M76M0.860.58%17.5011.102.1167.6562.1673.4230.8271.07%8.28
1984143M66M77M0.860.46%16.9011.602.0667.2061.7172.9730.9871.50%8.35
1985144M67M77M0.870.47%16.6011.302.0567.8662.7373.2431.1771.92%8.41
1986145M67M78M0.870.65%17.2010.402.1569.3964.7874.2331.3672.35%8.47
1987146M68M78M0.870.64%17.2010.502.2269.4464.8474.2731.5772.77%8.53
1988147M69M78M0.880.50%16.0010.702.1269.4664.6474.5331.8173.18%8.59
1989148M69M79M0.880.36%14.6010.702.0169.1764.2474.3532.0673.40%8.64
1990148M69M79M0.880.20%13.4011.201.8968.8963.7374.3032.3673.39%8.65
1991148M70M79M0.880.06%12.1011.401.7368.4763.4573.7532.6073.39%8.68
1992149M70M79M0.88-0.12%10.7012.201.5566.8762.0071.9932.9273.39%8.69
1993148M70M79M0.88-0.35%9.4014.501.3964.9458.9771.2033.2973.38%8.68
1994148M70M79M0.88-0.39%9.5015.701.4064.4757.5571.7333.6673.38%8.68
1995148M70M79M0.88-0.38%9.3015.001.3464.6958.1271.5934.0273.37%8.68
1996148M69M79M0.88-0.37%8.9014.201.2765.8559.6272.4034.4073.37%8.66
1997148M69M79M0.88-0.38%8.6013.801.2266.7060.8572.8434.7173.36%8.65
1998148M69M78M0.88-0.35%8.8013.501.2367.0361.2273.1334.9773.36%8.64
1999147M69M78M0.88-0.43%8.3014.601.1665.9859.8772.4035.2373.35%8.61
2000147M69M78M0.88-0.43%9.8017.101.2065.4859.0372.2635.5073.35%8.57
2001146M68M78M0.88-0.42%10.0017.301.2265.3858.9272.1735.6773.35%8.54
2002145M68M77M0.88-0.42%10.5018.201.2965.1358.6871.9035.8573.34%8.50
2003145M67M77M0.87-0.40%11.1018.401.3265.0358.5371.8536.0373.37%8.46
2004144M67M77M0.87-0.38%11.2018.101.3465.4758.9172.3636.1873.42%8.42
2005144M67M77M0.87-0.41%11.0018.601.2965.5358.9272.4736.3173.46%8.39
2006143M67M77M0.87-0.34%11.4017.401.3166.7360.4373.3436.5173.51%8.37
2007143M66M76M0.87-0.23%12.9016.701.4267.5961.4674.0236.6873.55%8.35
2008143M66M76M0.87-0.18%13.7016.701.5067.9561.9274.2836.8173.60%8.35
2009143M66M77M0.87-0.15%13.9016.301.5468.6862.8774.7936.9173.64%8.35
2010143M66M77M0.86-0.13%14.0016.101.5768.8463.0974.8836.9973.69%8.35
2011143M66M77M0.86-0.07%14.1015.201.5869.6864.0475.6137.1273.73%8.36
2012143M66M77M0.86-0.01%14.7014.801.6970.0764.5675.8637.2473.79%8.37
2013144M66M77M0.86?14.5014.501.7170.5865.1376.3037.3673.86%8.39
2014144M67M77M0.86-0.01%14.4014.501.7570.7465.2976.4737.5073.95%8.41
2015144M67M77M0.86-0.11%12.8014.401.7871.1865.9276.7137.6574.05%8.43
2016144M67M77M0.86-0.14%12.2014.201.7671.6566.5077.0637.8174.16%8.44
2017144M67M78M0.86-0.18%11.2013.701.6272.4567.5177.6437.9874.29%8.45
2018144M67M78M0.86-0.21%10.7013.601.5872.6667.7577.8238.1774.43%8.45
2019144M67M77M0.86-0.26%9.8013.301.5073.0868.2478.1738.3774.59%8.44
2020144M67M77M0.86-0.26%9.8013.301.5073.0868.2478.1738.5974.75%8.43
2021144M67M77M0.86-0.26%9.8013.301.5073.0868.2478.1738.8374.93%8.42

Russia Population Projections

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  • 10 years
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YearTotalMaleFemaleSex RatioGrowth rateBirth rateDeath rateFerti­lity rate
Life exp., total
Life expectancy
Life exp., maleLife exp., femaleMedian AgeUrbani­zation
Density, people / km2
Density, people/km2
2022144M67M77M0.86???????39.1075.13%8.41
2023144M67M77M0.86???????39.3975.33%8.40
2024144M67M77M0.86???????39.7075.55%8.39
2025143M66M77M0.86-0.19%10.6913.191.8373.1268.0478.4640.0275.78%8.38
2026143M66M77M0.86-0.21%10.5413.261.8373.2668.2178.5840.3776.02%8.36
2027143M66M76M0.86-0.22%10.4013.331.8373.4168.3778.7040.7176.27%8.34
2028142M66M76M0.87-0.24%10.2513.401.8373.5568.5478.8241.0576.53%8.32
2029142M66M76M0.87-0.25%10.1113.471.8373.7068.7078.9441.3676.80%8.30
2030141M66M76M0.87-0.26%9.9613.541.8373.8468.8779.0641.6677.08%8.27
2031141M65M76M0.87-0.27%10.0013.631.8373.9969.0479.1841.9477.38%8.25
2032141M65M75M0.87-0.27%10.0413.721.8374.1369.2279.2942.2377.68%8.22
2033140M65M75M0.87-0.27%10.0813.821.8374.2869.3979.4142.5277.99%8.19
2034140M65M75M0.87-0.27%10.1213.911.8374.4269.5779.5242.8078.31%8.16
2035139M65M75M0.87-0.27%10.1614.001.8374.5769.7479.6443.0378.63%8.13
2036139M64M74M0.87-0.27%10.3214.081.8374.7269.9279.7643.1878.96%8.11
2037138M64M74M0.87-0.26%10.4714.171.8374.8770.1079.8743.2479.30%8.08
2038138M64M74M0.87-0.25%10.6314.251.8375.0170.2779.9943.2179.63%8.05
2039137M64M73M0.87-0.25%10.7814.341.8375.1670.4580.1043.0979.96%8.02
2040137M64M73M0.87-0.24%10.9414.421.8375.3170.6380.2242.9180.29%8.00
2041136M64M73M0.87-0.23%11.0714.451.8375.4670.8180.3442.6480.61%7.98
2042136M63M73M0.87-0.23%11.2014.491.8375.6170.9980.4542.3380.93%7.95
2043136M63M72M0.87-0.22%11.3314.521.8375.7571.1780.5742.0081.24%7.93
2044135M63M72M0.88-0.21%11.4614.561.8375.9071.3580.6841.7081.55%7.91
2045135M63M72M0.88-0.21%11.5914.591.8376.0571.5380.8041.4381.86%7.90
2046135M63M72M0.88-0.20%11.6014.561.8376.2071.7280.9141.2182.16%7.88
2047134M63M72M0.88-0.20%11.6014.541.8376.3571.9081.0241.0382.46%7.86
2048134M63M71M0.88-0.20%11.6114.511.8376.5072.0981.1440.8982.75%7.85
2049134M63M71M0.88-0.20%11.6114.491.8376.6572.2781.2540.7983.04%7.83
2050134M63M71M0.89-0.20%11.6214.461.8376.8072.4681.3640.7383.33%7.82

Highest City Populations in Russia

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  • Top 100
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RankCityPopulation, Urban AreaPopulation, City
1Moscow12,598,04210,381,222
2Saint Petersburg5,507,3005,028,000
3Novosibirsk1,677,1001,419,007
4Yekaterinburg1,513,8251,349,772
5Kazan1,280,7331,104,738
6Nizhniy Novgorod1,254,7251,255,000
7Chelyabinsk1,233,4581,062,919
8Omsk1,182,0001,129,281
9Samara1,159,7251,134,730
10Krasnoyarsk1,150,100927,200
11Ufa1,140,3671,033,338
12Rostov-on-Don1,137,0921,074,482
13Perm1,075,367982,419
14Voronezh1,073,458848,752
15Volgograd1,000,6331,001,000
16Krasnodar975,559649,851
17Tyumen869,200519,119
18Saratov840,817841,000
19Tolyatti696,725697,000
20Izhevsk652,092631,038
21Irkutsk642,275586,695
22Barnaul640,000599,579
23Khabarovsk636,275579,000
24Ulyanovsk623,908624,000
25Yaroslavl613,092606,730
26Vladivostok610,000587,022
27Makhachkala601,092497,959
28Tomsk600,367485,519
29Orenburg569,000550,204
30Kemerovo567,092477,090
31Novokuznetsk548,817539,616
32Ryazan540,000520,173
33Astrakhan535,000502,533
34Naberezhnyye Chelny535,000509,870
35Balashikha531,375150,103
36Penza521,908512,602
37Kirov515,183457,383
38Cheboksary509,275446,781
39Lipetsk505,908506,000
40Kaliningrad487,275434,954
41Tula469,725468,825
42Kursk468,275409,431
43Sochi459,825327,608
44Stavropol453,275363,064
45Ulan-Ude446,183360,278
46Tver425,000400,212
47Magnitogorsk421,000413,351
48Belgorod411,275345,289
49Ivanovo401,908402,000
50Surgut397,642300,367
51Bryansk395,725396,000
52Vladimir359,000310,024
53Chita359,183308,500
54Kaluga350,092338,978
55Arkhangelsk348,908349,000
56Nizhny Tagil347,817348,000
57Yakutsk332,367235,600
58Volzhskiy330,000323,293
59Podolsk330,550179,400
60Smolensk327,908320,991
61Saransk323,092303,394
62Cherepovets320,000315,738
63Vologda317,000314,900
64Orel315,908316,000
65Kurgan310,725311,000
66Vladikavkaz300,908301,000

Map of Russia

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