Canada Population

Population now

37,915,627
Male:18,817,843(49.63 %)
Female:19,096,772(50.37 %)
Births in 2020:197,605
Deaths in 2020:150,951

Life expectancy & Rates (2020)

Male:80.63 years
Female:84.48 years
Total:82.51 years
Median Age:40.12 years
Birth Rate:10.25
Death Rate:7.83
Growth Rate:0.31 %
Fertility Rate:1.50

Population Data Graphs

  • Total population
  • Birth & Death rate
  • Life expectancy
  • Median Age
  • Population structure (mid 2020)
  • Urbanization

Canada Population Review

Canada is one of the fastest growing countries of any G7 nation. It’s current population of 37 million may seem small compared to some other countries, but at its current projected growth rate, the country is set to double and surpass 50 million people by 2070. Unlike many other first world countries, Canada is under populated and migration plays a large part in the country’s growth rate. The current fertility rate of 1.5 per woman is not enough to replace the population, which means the country must look to immigration. Canada has a net migration of 6.3 per 1,000 people, which gives it the eighth highest migration rate in the world.

A virtually unpopulated North

Most of Canada’s 37 million citizens live on the Southern belt of the country along the border of the United States. The northern portion of the country faces extremely harsh winters, which make it inhospitable for agriculture or for living year round. Trade with the United States is also key for Canada, which means it makes more sense for people to live closer to that border. This large swath of land being unpopulated means that Canada has one of the lowest population densities in the world, with only 4 people per square kilometer. This makes it the 228th most densely populated country on earth.

Meanwhile, Toronto—which is Canada’s largest city—is also the largest metropolitan area in the world. It has a population of 2.93 million people and a population density of 2,930 people per square kilometer.

A bilingual nation

Canada’s two official languages are English and French. In the 2016 census, 56% of Canadians indicated that English was their mother tongue, with 20.6% reporting that French was their mother tongue. However, 5.8 million Canadians report that they are bilingual to the point that they are able to carry on a conversation in both languages. The next most widely spoken language in the country in actually Chinese, with more than a million people indicating they speak the language. Although there are 11 aboriginal languages that were once spoken in Canada, most have become extinct.

Two provinces with most of the population

Canada has ten provinces with three territories to the north, but more than half the country’s population live in only two provinces: Ontario and Quebec. These two provinces alone have over 22 million living in them out of Canada’s 37 million. They also have the most populated cities, with Toronto in Ontario and Montreal in Quebec. However, Calgary in Alberta is growing at twice the rate of the Canadian average. If it continues this way, it’s set to overtake Montreal in the near future.

A healthy nation

Canada is, overall, a healthy nation. Over the past several decades, the country’s mortality rate and life expectancy have greatly improved. The current average life expectancy in Canada is around 82 years, which puts the country on par with other developed nations. Canada still suffers from many preventable health concerns, including youth substance abuse, physical inactivity, and childhood obesity.

An aging population

Canada’s long life expectancy and decreasing fertility mean that the country is getting older. From 1956 to 2006, the average age of the country grew from 27 to 38 years old. The longer life expectancy also means that that country’s workforce is decreasing, which means the country relies more on tech advancements and imported workers. By 2056, it’s expected that the country’s median age will reach around 46-years-old, an increase of more than 20 years than it was in 1956. For the first time in Canada’s history, the population of the elderly now outnumber the population of children in the country.

Review Updated: April 29, 2020

Canada Population History

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YearTotalMaleFemaleSex RatioGrowth rateBirth rateDeath rateFerti­lity rate
Life exp., total
Life expectancy
Life exp., maleLife exp., femaleMedian AgeUrbani­zation
Density, people / km2
Density, people/km2
196018M9M9M1.022.42%26.707.803.8171.1368.2674.1525.4669.06%1.79
196118M9M9M1.022.38%26.007.703.7571.3568.3974.4525.2269.67%1.83
196219M9M9M1.022.27%25.207.703.6871.3768.4574.4324.9870.49%1.86
196319M10M9M1.022.15%24.607.803.6171.3868.4174.5024.7771.31%1.90
196419M10M10M1.012.12%23.407.503.4671.7868.6375.0824.6172.11%1.94
196520M10M10M1.011.80%21.307.603.1271.8768.7675.1424.5272.89%1.97
196620M10M10M1.011.57%19.307.502.7572.0068.7875.3924.4273.64%2.01
196720M10M10M1.011.46%18.207.402.5372.2168.9275.6624.4574.16%2.04
196821M10M10M1.011.38%17.607.402.3972.3569.0975.7824.5974.66%2.08
196921M11M10M1.011.41%17.607.302.3372.5069.1676.0124.8175.16%2.11
197021M11M11M1.011.38%17.407.302.2672.7069.3276.2525.0675.65%2.14
197122M11M11M11.30%16.807.302.1473.0369.6076.6325.3276.09%2.20
197222M11M11M11.15%15.907.401.9872.9369.4976.5525.5675.97%2.23
197322M11M11M11.11%15.607.401.8973.1669.6776.8325.8275.85%2.25
197423M11M11M11.08%15.407.401.8473.2469.7476.9126.1275.73%2.28
197523M12M12M11.16%15.807.301.8273.5269.9977.2326.4675.61%2.32
197623M12M12M11.17%15.607.201.8073.8670.3077.5926.7575.50%2.35
197724M12M12M11.18%15.507.101.7874.2270.6477.9727.0875.54%2.38
197824M12M12M11.14%15.207.101.7774.5370.9278.3227.4575.58%2.40
197924M12M12M0.991.20%15.407.001.7574.8771.3278.5927.8275.62%2.42
198025M12M12M0.991.17%15.407.101.7475.0871.6078.7328.1975.66%2.46
198125M12M12M0.991.19%15.307.001.7075.4672.0079.1028.5575.71%2.49
198225M12M13M0.991.13%15.107.101.6975.7672.3079.4028.8975.87%2.52
198325M13M13M0.991.14%15.007.001.6876.0772.7079.6029.2676.04%2.54
198426M13M13M0.991.14%15.007.001.6576.2272.9079.7029.6576.20%2.56
198526M13M13M0.991.13%14.907.001.6776.3773.1079.8030.0576.35%2.59
198626M13M13M0.991.01%14.507.201.6876.5273.3079.9030.4176.50%2.61
198726M13M13M0.991.00%14.407.201.6876.7273.5080.1030.7976.52%2.65
198827M13M13M0.980.99%14.507.301.6876.9273.7080.3031.1676.54%2.68
198927M14M14M0.981.04%14.907.301.7777.1273.9080.5031.5476.56%2.73
199028M14M14M0.981.05%15.007.301.8377.4274.3080.7031.9276.58%2.77
199128M14M14M0.981.13%14.907.001.7077.6274.5080.9032.2976.62%2.81
199228M14M14M0.981.13%14.706.901.7177.7274.7080.9032.6476.89%2.84
199329M14M14M0.980.92%13.607.101.7077.8274.8081.0033.0077.15%2.87
199429M14M15M0.980.85%13.107.101.6777.8374.9080.9033.3877.41%2.90
199529M15M15M0.980.75%12.607.201.6478.0375.2081.0033.7877.68%2.93
199630M15M15M0.980.67%12.007.201.5978.1875.4081.1034.1677.95%2.97
199730M15M15M0.980.61%11.607.201.5578.4375.7081.3034.5878.34%3.00
199830M15M15M0.980.58%11.407.201.5378.6376.0081.4035.0078.72%3.02
199930M15M15M0.980.56%11.207.201.5178.8976.3081.6035.4179.10%3.04
200031M15M15M0.980.51%10.707.101.4979.1476.6081.8035.7979.48%3.07
200131M15M16M0.980.51%10.707.101.5179.3476.9081.9036.1579.81%3.11
200231M16M16M0.980.48%10.507.101.5079.4977.1082.0036.5079.89%3.14
200332M16M16M0.980.49%10.607.101.5379.7477.4082.2036.8579.97%3.17
200432M16M16M0.980.48%10.507.101.5379.8977.6082.3037.2080.05%3.20
200532M16M16M0.980.49%10.607.101.5480.1977.9082.6037.5680.12%3.23
200633M16M16M0.980.56%10.907.001.5980.3478.1082.7037.8280.21%3.26
200733M16M17M0.980.58%11.207.101.6680.5478.3082.9038.0480.40%3.29
200833M16M17M0.980.57%11.307.201.6880.7078.5083.0038.2480.58%3.33
200934M17M17M0.980.59%11.307.101.6781.0078.8083.3038.4280.76%3.37
201034M17M17M0.980.59%11.107.001.6381.2579.1083.5038.6280.94%3.41
201134M17M17M0.980.55%11.007.101.6181.4579.4083.6038.7681.10%3.44
201235M17M17M0.980.55%11.007.101.6181.6579.6083.8038.9181.14%3.48
201335M17M18M0.980.50%10.807.201.5981.7579.7083.9039.0881.18%3.51
201435M18M18M0.980.48%10.807.301.5881.8079.8083.9039.2481.22%3.55
201536M18M18M0.980.45%10.707.401.5681.9079.9084.0039.4081.26%3.58
201636M18M18M0.980.43%10.607.401.5481.9079.9084.0039.5481.30%3.62
201737M18M18M0.980.37%10.307.501.5081.9579.9084.1039.6781.35%3.66
201837M18M19M0.980.31%10.107.701.5081.9579.9084.1039.7981.41%3.71
201938M19M19M0.980.34%10.347.741.5182.3980.4884.3839.9481.48%3.76
202038M19M19M0.990.31%10.257.831.5082.5180.6384.4840.1281.56%3.80

Canada Population Projections

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YearTotalMaleFemaleSex RatioGrowth rateBirth rateDeath rateFerti­lity rate
Life exp., total
Life expectancy
Life exp., maleLife exp., femaleMedian AgeUrbani­zation
Density, people / km2
Density, people/km2
202138M19M19M0.990.29%10.187.881.5082.6680.8384.5940.2881.65%3.83
202239M19M19M0.990.27%10.117.931.4982.8281.0384.7040.4681.75%3.86
202339M19M20M0.990.26%10.047.981.4982.9781.2284.8040.6581.86%3.89
202439M19M20M0.990.24%9.978.031.4883.1381.4284.9140.8581.98%3.92
202539M20M20M0.990.23%9.908.081.4883.2881.6285.0241.0682.11%3.95
202640M20M20M0.990.20%9.848.171.4883.4381.7985.1541.2382.25%3.98
202740M20M20M0.990.19%9.788.251.4883.5881.9585.2941.4082.39%4.01
202840M20M20M0.990.16%9.718.341.4983.7382.1285.4241.5882.55%4.04
202941M20M20M0.990.15%9.658.421.4983.8882.2885.5641.7882.71%4.07
203041M20M21M0.990.13%9.598.511.4984.0382.4585.6942.0082.88%4.10
203141M20M21M0.990.11%9.558.631.4984.1682.5985.8242.1783.06%4.13
203241M21M21M0.990.09%9.528.751.5084.3082.7285.9542.3483.24%4.15
203342M21M21M0.990.07%9.488.881.5084.4382.8686.0842.5183.44%4.18
203442M21M21M0.990.05%9.459.001.5184.5782.9986.2142.6983.64%4.20
203542M21M21M0.990.03%9.419.121.5184.7083.1386.3442.9083.84%4.23
203642M21M21M0.990.02%9.419.251.5284.8283.2686.4543.0684.06%4.25
203743M21M21M0.990.00%9.419.391.5284.9483.3886.5743.2484.28%4.28
203843M21M22M0.99-0.01%9.409.521.5385.0583.5186.6843.4484.50%4.30
203943M21M22M0.99-0.03%9.409.661.5385.1783.6386.8043.6584.73%4.32
204043M22M22M0.99-0.04%9.409.791.5485.2983.7686.9143.8484.97%4.34
204144M22M22M0.99-0.05%9.429.891.5485.4183.8887.0243.9885.21%4.36
204244M22M22M0.99-0.06%9.4310.001.5585.5283.9987.1444.0885.45%4.38
204344M22M22M0.99-0.06%9.4510.101.5585.6484.1187.2544.1885.69%4.40
204444M22M22M0.99-0.07%9.4610.211.5685.7584.2287.3744.2785.93%4.42
204544M22M22M0.99-0.08%9.4810.311.5685.8784.3487.4844.3686.16%4.44
204645M22M22M0.99-0.08%9.4910.361.5685.9884.4587.5944.3986.40%4.46
204745M22M22M0.99-0.09%9.5110.411.5786.1084.5787.7044.4086.62%4.48
204845M22M23M0.99-0.09%9.5210.461.5786.2184.6887.8244.4186.85%4.50
204945M22M23M0.99-0.09%9.5410.511.5886.3384.8087.9344.4387.07%4.53
205045M23M23M0.99-0.10%9.5510.561.5886.4484.9188.0444.4887.29%4.55

Highest City Populations in Canada

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RankCityPopulation, Urban AreaPopulation, City
1Toronto6,197,6522,600,000
2Montreal4,221,2811,600,000
3Vancouver2,581,281600,000
4Calgary1,547,3821,019,942
5Edmonton1,461,348712,391
6Ottawa1,393,169812,129
7Quebec826,056528,595
8Winnipeg817,101632,063
9Hamilton767,045519,949
10Kitchener562,090233,700
11London508,034346,765
12St. Catharines416,022131,989
13Halifax413,022359,111
14Oshawa398,045308,875
15Victoria386,045289,625
16Windsor336,011278,013
17Saskatoon325,079198,958

Map of Canada

All Countries in North America

Mexico129M
Canada38M