India Population

Population now

1,390,701,357
  • World: 2nd
  • Asia: 2nd
Male:722,584,942(51.96 %)
Female:668,116,415(48.04 %)
Births in 2021:19,392,543
Deaths in 2021:8,117,292

Life expectancy & Rates (2021)

Male:68.68 years
Female:71.20 years
Total:69.89 years
Median Age:27.73 years
Birth Rate:17.44
Death Rate:7.30
Growth Rate:1.39 %
Fertility Rate:2.18

Population Data Graphs

  • Total population
  • Birth & Death rate
  • Life expectancy
  • Median Age
  • Population structure (mid 2021)
  • Urbanization

India Population Review

The vibrant and bustling country of India has a long, rich history and an ever-expanding population. India’s 2020 population is estimated at 1.38 billion, which makes it the second most populated country in the world behind China. Located in South Asia, India is bordered by Pakistan, Bhutan, Nepal, China, Bangladesh, and Myanmar and has the Bay of Bengal, the Indian Ocean, and the Arabian Sea at its borders. The country is famous for its culture, its spices and food, and its large Hindi movie industry, Bollywood.

India’s skyrocketing growth rate

So many people in the world live in the country of India that, on average, 1 in 6 of every person alive on Earth is living in India. This rapidly expanding nation is well on its way to becoming the world’s most populated country, unseating China by 2027. In only 40 years, India has doubled in size. In fact, in ten years alone (from 2001 to 2011) India’s population grew by 17.7%, or about 18.5 million people. While India’s growth has dropped slightly from 2% per year in 2000, it is still predicted to continue growing at 1.4% for 2020, and beyond.

Population density and space to roam

India covers over 3.2 million kilometres, which makes it the seventh largest country in the world. However, its population far outstrips most of the largest countries. What this means is that India has one of the higher population densities in the world. As a whole, there are 420 people per square kilometer in India, which makes it the 31st most densely populated country. Within some of India’s cities, that density goes up exponentially. In India’s largest city of Mumbai, for example, the population density is 21,000 people per square kilometer.

India’s massive cities

There are 4,000 cities and towns in India. Forty-six of those cities have a population of over 1 million people, while eleven of them have a population greater than 3 million and are considered Mega Cities. The three largest cities in the country are Mumbai, Delhi, and Bangalore, each of which has a population of over 8 million people.

Mumbai is by far the largest city with an estimated population of 22 million people, which is a greater population than the entire country of Mali. It is also the fourth most populous city in the world and the largest in terms of trade activity and business as well. Like many parts of India, Mumbai has experience a growth explosion over the past two decades. This rapid population growth is attributed to migration as people seek better employment opportunities.

Ongoing issues with poverty

India’s booming growth has done nothing for the country’s poverty issues. It’s estimated that 37% of their population of 1.38 people are below the international poverty line, which is below $1.25 a day. Data from the World Health Organization have shown that almost 100,000 people die every year in India due to health issues caused by diarrhea. This stems from inadequate sanitation, nutrition and unsafe water. Families struggle to grow enough crops to feed themselves and their children, which leads to the a third of the world’s malnourished children living in India. It’s estimated that 46% of all children under three are too small for their age range.

Tech jobs on the rise

While India continues to struggle to fight its poverty issue and find adequate housing and food for its people, one place it does not struggle is in the tech industry. In 2020, India’s IT industry will surge to two million new additions around the world, with 13% of those jobs being in India itself. Driving this growth is the adoption of emerging technologies, AI, machine learning and automation robotics. India also continues to spend money on educating employees to expand their current skillset. India’s tech industry currently provides jobs for four million people and only continues to grow.

Review Updated: April 29, 2020

India Population History

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YearTotalMaleFemaleSex RatioGrowth rateBirth rateDeath rateFerti­lity rate
Life exp., total
Life expectancy
Life exp., maleLife exp., femaleMedian AgeUrbani­zation
Density, people / km2
Density, people/km2
1960451M233M218M1.070.89%42.0022.185.9141.4242.2740.5319.1817.92%137.04
1961460M237M222M1.070.93%41.7521.655.9042.0342.8741.1319.0718.03%139.81
1962469M242M227M1.070.96%41.4821.135.8942.6443.4841.7518.9318.22%142.68
1963479M247M231M1.071.00%41.2020.615.8843.2544.0842.3818.7718.41%145.65
1964489M253M236M1.071.03%40.9020.105.8643.8744.6943.0218.6418.60%148.69
1965499M258M241M1.071.07%40.5919.595.8344.5045.2943.6718.5518.79%151.82
1966510M264M246M1.071.11%40.2719.095.7945.1445.9044.3418.4118.98%155.02
1967520M269M251M1.071.15%39.9718.605.7545.7846.5145.0118.3319.17%158.29
1968532M275M256M1.071.19%39.6718.125.7046.4347.1245.7018.2919.37%161.67
1969543M281M262M1.071.23%39.3917.655.6547.0847.7446.3918.2819.56%165.19
1970555M287M268M1.071.28%39.1117.195.5947.7448.3547.1018.3219.76%168.87
1971568M294M274M1.071.32%38.8216.735.5248.4048.9647.8218.3419.99%172.73
1972581M301M280M1.071.37%38.5216.285.4449.0649.5648.5518.4120.32%176.75
1973595M308M287M1.071.41%38.2015.845.3649.7250.1549.2918.5020.65%180.91
1974609M315M293M1.081.46%37.8715.415.2850.3750.7250.0318.6120.99%185.18
1975623M323M300M1.081.50%37.5314.995.1951.0151.2850.7618.7421.33%189.53
1976638M330M307M1.081.55%37.2114.605.1151.6351.8151.4718.8021.68%193.95
1977652M338M314M1.081.59%36.9114.235.0352.2252.3352.1418.8822.03%198.45
1978667M346M322M1.081.64%36.6413.894.9652.7952.8352.7818.9822.38%203.04
1979683M354M329M1.081.68%36.4013.584.8953.3253.3153.3719.0922.74%207.75
1980699M362M337M1.081.72%36.1713.294.8353.8153.7653.9119.2023.10%212.60
1981715M371M345M1.081.76%35.9213.034.7754.2754.1854.4019.2723.42%217.60
1982732M380M353M1.081.79%35.6312.794.7054.6954.5854.8419.3423.65%222.73
1983749M388M361M1.081.81%35.2912.564.6455.0754.9555.2419.4223.88%227.96
1984767M398M369M1.081.83%34.8912.344.5655.4455.3055.6219.5124.11%233.25
1985784M407M378M1.081.84%34.4212.124.4855.8055.6555.9919.6124.35%238.58
1986802M416M386M1.081.85%33.8911.894.4056.1755.9956.3719.6624.59%243.94
1987820M425M394M1.081.86%33.3211.654.3156.5556.3556.7819.7424.82%249.33
1988837M434M403M1.081.87%32.7311.404.2256.9656.7357.2319.8425.06%254.74
1989855M444M411M1.081.88%32.1211.144.1357.4057.1257.7119.9625.31%260.17
1990873M453M420M1.081.90%31.5210.864.0557.8757.5458.2320.0925.55%265.63
1991891M463M429M1.081.92%30.9210.593.9658.3557.9758.7720.2025.78%271.10
1992909M472M437M1.081.94%30.3510.323.8858.8558.4159.3420.3425.98%276.59
1993927M482M446M1.081.96%29.7910.063.8059.3558.8459.9020.4826.19%282.09
1994946M491M454M1.081.98%29.269.813.7259.8459.2860.4520.6426.40%287.63
1995964M501M463M1.082.00%28.759.583.6560.3259.7060.9920.8126.61%293.20
1996982M511M472M1.082.02%28.269.373.5860.7860.1261.5020.9626.82%298.81
19971001M520M481M1.082.03%27.799.183.5161.2360.5361.9921.1327.03%304.45
19981019M530M490M1.082.04%27.329.003.4561.6760.9462.4621.3127.24%310.10
19991038M540M498M1.082.04%26.868.843.3862.0961.3462.9121.5027.45%315.75
20001057M549M507M1.082.04%26.408.693.3162.5161.7363.3321.7127.67%321.38
20011075M559M516M1.082.03%25.948.563.2462.9162.1263.7521.9027.92%326.99
20021093M569M525M1.082.02%25.498.433.1863.3062.5164.1522.1128.24%332.56
20031112M578M533M1.082.01%25.038.313.1163.7062.9064.5422.3328.57%338.10
20041130M588M542M1.082.00%24.578.193.0464.1063.2964.9422.5528.90%343.60
20051148M597M551M1.081.99%24.098.072.9764.5063.6965.3622.7929.24%349.07
20061165M606M559M1.081.96%23.567.962.9064.9264.0965.7923.0229.57%354.51
20071183M616M568M1.081.93%23.007.842.8265.3564.5066.2523.2729.91%359.90
20081201M625M576M1.081.90%22.397.722.7465.7964.9166.7423.5330.25%365.21
20091218M634M584M1.081.86%21.767.602.6666.2465.3267.2323.8030.59%370.40
20101234M642M592M1.081.82%21.117.492.5866.6965.7267.7324.1030.93%375.44
20111250M650M600M1.081.77%20.507.392.5167.1366.1268.2224.4131.28%380.31
20121266M658M607M1.081.73%19.927.312.4467.5566.4968.6824.7431.63%385.02
20131281M666M615M1.081.68%19.427.252.3867.9366.8469.1125.0832.00%389.60
20141296M674M622M1.081.63%18.987.212.3368.2967.1769.4925.4332.38%394.09
20151310M681M629M1.081.59%18.637.192.3068.6167.4769.8425.7732.78%398.51
20161325M689M636M1.081.55%18.337.202.2768.9067.7570.1426.1133.18%402.88
20171339M696M643M1.081.51%18.087.212.2469.1768.0070.4326.4433.60%407.19
20181353M703M650M1.081.47%17.867.232.2269.4268.2470.6926.7634.03%411.43
20191366M710M656M1.081.47%17.867.232.2269.4268.2470.6927.0934.47%415.63
20201380M717M663M1.081.39%17.447.302.1869.8968.6871.2027.4334.93%419.76
20211393M724M669M1.081.39%17.447.302.1869.8968.6871.2027.7335.39%423.84

India Population Projections

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YearTotalMaleFemaleSex RatioGrowth rateBirth rateDeath rateFerti­lity rate
Life exp., total
Life expectancy
Life exp., maleLife exp., femaleMedian AgeUrbani­zation
Density, people / km2
Density, people/km2
20221407M731M676M1.081.30%17.047.402.1470.3169.0671.6828.0535.87%427.86
20231420M737M682M1.081.26%16.857.442.1370.5369.2571.9128.3836.36%431.82
20241432M744M689M1.081.22%16.657.492.1170.7469.4472.1528.7136.87%435.72
20251445M750M695M1.081.18%16.457.542.0970.9569.6372.3929.0437.38%439.54
20261457M757M701M1.081.14%16.257.612.0871.1469.8072.6029.3737.91%443.28
20271469M763M707M1.081.09%16.057.682.0671.3369.9772.8229.7038.45%446.93
20281481M769M713M1.081.05%15.847.742.0571.5170.1373.0330.0339.00%450.51
20291493M774M718M1.081.00%15.647.812.0371.7070.3073.2530.3639.57%453.99
20301504M780M724M1.080.96%15.447.882.0271.8970.4773.4630.7040.14%457.37
20311514M785M729M1.080.91%15.227.962.0172.0670.6273.6531.0240.73%460.65
20321525M790M734M1.080.86%14.998.051.9972.2370.7673.8431.3441.32%463.82
20331535M795M740M1.080.82%14.778.131.9872.3970.9174.0331.6641.93%466.88
20341545M800M744M1.070.77%14.548.221.9672.5671.0574.2231.9942.55%469.81
20351554M805M749M1.070.73%14.328.301.9572.7371.2074.4132.3343.17%472.60
20361562M809M754M1.070.68%14.108.401.9472.8971.3474.5932.6543.80%475.25
20371571M813M758M1.070.63%13.888.491.9373.0471.4874.7732.9744.44%477.76
20381578M816M762M1.070.59%13.668.591.9173.2071.6274.9433.3045.08%480.13
20391586M820M766M1.070.55%13.448.681.9073.3571.7675.1233.6345.72%482.36
20401593M823M770M1.070.51%13.228.781.8973.5171.9075.3033.9746.37%484.46
20411599M826M773M1.070.47%13.058.881.8873.6672.0475.4634.3047.01%486.41
20421605M829M776M1.070.43%12.888.981.8773.8172.1775.6234.6447.66%488.23
20431611M831M779M1.070.40%12.729.091.8673.9672.3175.7934.9748.31%489.93
20441616M834M782M1.070.37%12.559.191.8574.1172.4475.9535.2948.96%491.50
20451621M836M785M1.060.33%12.389.291.8474.2672.5876.1135.6049.60%492.95
20461625M838M787M1.060.31%12.279.401.8374.4072.7276.2635.9050.25%494.29
20471629M839M790M1.060.28%12.169.511.8274.5572.8576.4236.1850.90%495.53
20481633M841M792M1.060.25%12.059.611.8274.6972.9976.5736.4751.55%496.65
20491636M842M794M1.060.23%11.949.721.8174.8473.1276.7336.7652.19%497.67
20501639M843M796M1.060.20%11.839.831.8074.9873.2676.8837.0552.84%498.60

Highest City Populations in India

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RankCityPopulation, Urban AreaPopulation, City
1Delhi31,001,23110,927,986
2Mumbai20,616,08912,691,836
3Calcutta14,948,9544,631,392
4Bangalore12,676,5295,104,047
5Madras11,181,6754,328,063
6Hyderabad10,215,4733,597,816
7Ahmadabad8,213,8143,719,710
8Surat7,428,3942,894,504
9Poona6,771,84448,837
10Jaipur3,988,0032,711,758
11Lucknow3,747,2252,472,011
12Calicut3,704,228439,922
13Malappuram3,564,96761,743
14Thrissur3,183,712325,110
15Cochin3,170,579604,696
16Kanpur3,147,1422,823,249
17Indore3,093,6091,837,041
18Nagpur2,930,5072,228,018
19Coimbatore2,845,255959,823
20Thiruvananthapuram2,669,589784,153
21Patna2,472,7091,599,920
22Bhopal2,435,4871,599,914
23Agra2,251,4971,430,055
24Vadodara2,224,3151,409,476
25Kannur2,214,88162,836
26Visakhapatnam2,215,6991,063,178
27Nashik2,111,4871,289,497
28Vijayawada2,091,073874,587
29Kollam1,923,023394,163
30Rajkot1,922,6891,177,362
31Ludhiana1,879,3441,545,368
32Madurai1,759,536909,908
33Meerut1,721,5361,223,184
34Raipur1,689,88127,702
35Benares1,687,3441,164,404
36Jamshedpur1,623,738616,338
37Srinagar1,614,728975,857
38Aurangabad1,591,51795,929
39Tiruppur1,546,275397,521
40Jodhpur1,502,324921,476
41Ranchi1,467,728846,454
42Jabalpur1,467,5561,030,168
43Asansol1,449,354504,271
44Kota1,422,113763,088
45Allahabad1,410,7581,073,438
46Gwalior1,403,536882,458
47Amritsar1,395,3541,092,450
48Dhanbad1,344,566219,636
49Bareilly1,279,738745,435
50Aligarh1,238,132753,207
51Mysore1,229,950868,313
52Moradabad1,224,930721,139
53Durg1,221,566255,283
54Bhubaneswar1,187,738762,243
55Tiruchirappalli1,178,566775,484
56Chandigarh1,164,758960,787
57Hubli1,132,960840,214
58Gauhati1,131,364899,094
59Salem1,119,556778,396
60Saharanpur1,086,719484,873
61Jalandhar1,069,960785,178
62Siliguri1,049,526515,574
63Solapur1,039,778997,281
64Warangal978,354557,802
65Dehradun938,152522,081
66Guntur870,758530,577
67Bhiwandi870,970707,035
68Puducherry851,960227,411
69Firozabad840,950306,409
70Cherthala793,52645,827
71Bikaner783,970576,015
72Nellore768,556404,158
73Gorakhpur765,182767,000
74Amravati762,374603,837
75Cuttack749,980580,000
76Muzaffarnagar736,950349,706
77Kottayam730,31559,437
78Belgaum735,374428,720
79Malegaon727,970435,362
80Kayamkulam720,53664,183
81Mangalore721,778417,387
82Bhavnagar709,576554,978
83Jammu707,586465,567
84Nanded Waghala702,768-
85Tirupati699,748250,821
86Gulbarga684,970483,615
87Durgapur684,576518,872
88Kurnool681,758460,184
89Jhansi651,778412,927
90Jamnagar649,788492,056
91Erode645,374147,270
92Bokaro Steel City640,38439,305
93Raurkela629,384536,450
94Kolhapur625,384516,142
95Ajmer620,384517,911
96Ujjain615,778457,346
97Patiala613,364329,224
98Bilaspur612,76839,873
99Mathura599,970330,511
100Agartala590,960203,264
101Imphal590,364223,523
102Sangli590,384592,000
103Udaipur577,77830,264
104Vellore576,980177,081
105Tuticorin574,566410,760
106Jalgaon574,576429,298
107Gaya573,778423,692
108Tirunelveli572,384574,000
109Panipat557,576292,808
110Rajahmundry550,384304,804
111Bellary531,374336,681
112Hosur521,930103,724
113Kakinada521,182292,923
114Davanagere519,182-
115Muzaffarpur513,576333,200
116Purnia493,162198,453
117Begusarai489,546103,060
118Latur487,778348,967
119Bhagalpur485,384361,548
120Rohtak474,980317,245
121Shillong469,576132,842
122Bhilwara460,778326,431
123Anantapur458,576240,442
124Yamunanagar456,586208,931
125Akola454,192428,857
126Kadapa452,576127,010
127Sagar443,38453,150
128English Bazar437,374170,039
129Alwar436,980283,228
130Hardwar436,374186,079
131Rampur433,18226,257
132Raniganj427,556131,261
133Bijapur421,980271,064
134Korba422,788419,146
135Barddhaman420,384301,725
136Baharampur416,576180,547
137Brahmapur413,586324,726
138Dhule413,192366,980
139Karnal411,576225,049
140Dhulian408,16277,070
141Ahmadnagar407,192367,140
142Gandhidham402,768166,388
143Junagadh404,182184,447
144Karimnagar403,778228,745
145Ottappalam399,36450,913
146Dindigul393,980200,797
147Bihar Sharif380,182244,230
148Anand379,182138,009
149Shimoga379,788319,550
150Aizawl376,384265,331
151Bathinda375,182242,800
152Shahjahanpur376,394320,434
153Palakkad374,384132,728
154Santipur374,182149,983
155Ichalkaranji370,990274,383
156Tumkur366,586307,359
157Deoghar363,364-
158Maunath Bhanjan365,182246,050
159Roorkee364,374103,894
160Ranipet363,980-
161Parbhani363,788289,629
162Dewas361,586261,218
163Hisar357,990296,436
164Karur355,57676,915
165Morvi354,778118,022
166Chandrapur355,192328,351
167Darbhanga354,990287,150
168Habra352,788139,297
169Kanhangad350,37468,450
170Farrukhabad349,586241,152
171Satna348,586257,778
172Jalna345,788262,034
173Khammam345,384170,503
174Navsari343,788171,109
175Thanjavur340,990219,571
176Haldwani337,778139,497
177Arrah335,384223,676
178Nizamabad336,192305,438
179Kharagpur329,39427,492
180Hapur325,788242,920
181Ratlam319,990236,843

Map of India

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