India Population

Population now

1,397,541,231
  • World: 2nd
  • Asia: 2nd
Male:726,091,436(51.96 %)
Female:671,449,795(48.04 %)
Births in 2021:32,156,911
Deaths in 2021:13,252,876

Life expectancy & Rates (2021)

Male:68.46 years
Female:70.95 years
Total:69.66 years
Median Age:27.73 years
Birth Rate:17.64
Death Rate:7.27
Growth Rate:1.43 %
Fertility Rate:2.20

Population Data Graphs

  • Total population
  • Birth & Death rate
  • Life expectancy
  • Median Age
  • Population structure (mid 2021)
  • Urbanization

India Population Review

The vibrant and bustling country of India has a long, rich history and an ever-expanding population. India’s 2020 population is estimated at 1.38 billion, which makes it the second most populated country in the world behind China. Located in South Asia, India is bordered by Pakistan, Bhutan, Nepal, China, Bangladesh, and Myanmar and has the Bay of Bengal, the Indian Ocean, and the Arabian Sea at its borders. The country is famous for its culture, its spices and food, and its large Hindi movie industry, Bollywood.

India’s skyrocketing growth rate

So many people in the world live in the country of India that, on average, 1 in 6 of every person alive on Earth is living in India. This rapidly expanding nation is well on its way to becoming the world’s most populated country, unseating China by 2027. In only 40 years, India has doubled in size. In fact, in ten years alone (from 2001 to 2011) India’s population grew by 17.7%, or about 18.5 million people. While India’s growth has dropped slightly from 2% per year in 2000, it is still predicted to continue growing at 1.4% for 2020, and beyond.

Population density and space to roam

India covers over 3.2 million kilometres, which makes it the seventh largest country in the world. However, its population far outstrips most of the largest countries. What this means is that India has one of the higher population densities in the world. As a whole, there are 420 people per square kilometer in India, which makes it the 31st most densely populated country. Within some of India’s cities, that density goes up exponentially. In India’s largest city of Mumbai, for example, the population density is 21,000 people per square kilometer.

India’s massive cities

There are 4,000 cities and towns in India. Forty-six of those cities have a population of over 1 million people, while eleven of them have a population greater than 3 million and are considered Mega Cities. The three largest cities in the country are Mumbai, Delhi, and Bangalore, each of which has a population of over 8 million people.

Mumbai is by far the largest city with an estimated population of 22 million people, which is a greater population than the entire country of Mali. It is also the fourth most populous city in the world and the largest in terms of trade activity and business as well. Like many parts of India, Mumbai has experience a growth explosion over the past two decades. This rapid population growth is attributed to migration as people seek better employment opportunities.

Ongoing issues with poverty

India’s booming growth has done nothing for the country’s poverty issues. It’s estimated that 37% of their population of 1.38 people are below the international poverty line, which is below $1.25 a day. Data from the World Health Organization have shown that almost 100,000 people die every year in India due to health issues caused by diarrhea. This stems from inadequate sanitation, nutrition and unsafe water. Families struggle to grow enough crops to feed themselves and their children, which leads to the a third of the world’s malnourished children living in India. It’s estimated that 46% of all children under three are too small for their age range.

Tech jobs on the rise

While India continues to struggle to fight its poverty issue and find adequate housing and food for its people, one place it does not struggle is in the tech industry. In 2020, India’s IT industry will surge to two million new additions around the world, with 13% of those jobs being in India itself. Driving this growth is the adoption of emerging technologies, AI, machine learning and automation robotics. India also continues to spend money on educating employees to expand their current skillset. India’s tech industry currently provides jobs for four million people and only continues to grow.

Review Updated: April 29, 2020

India Population History

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YearTotalMaleFemaleSex RatioGrowth rateBirth rateDeath rateFerti­lity rate
Life exp., total
Life expectancy
Life exp., maleLife exp., femaleMedian AgeUrbani­zation
Density, people / km2
Density, people/km2
1960451M233M218M1.070.89%42.0022.185.9141.4242.2740.5319.1817.92%137.04
1961460M237M222M1.070.93%41.7521.655.9042.0342.8741.1319.0718.03%139.81
1962469M242M227M1.070.96%41.4821.135.8942.6443.4841.7518.9318.22%142.68
1963479M247M231M1.071.00%41.2020.615.8843.2544.0842.3818.7718.41%145.65
1964489M253M236M1.071.03%40.9020.105.8643.8744.6943.0218.6418.60%148.69
1965499M258M241M1.071.07%40.5919.595.8344.5045.2943.6718.5518.79%151.82
1966510M264M246M1.071.11%40.2719.095.7945.1445.9044.3418.4118.98%155.02
1967520M269M251M1.071.15%39.9718.605.7545.7846.5145.0118.3319.17%158.29
1968532M275M256M1.071.19%39.6718.125.7046.4347.1245.7018.2919.37%161.67
1969543M281M262M1.071.23%39.3917.655.6547.0847.7446.3918.2819.56%165.19
1970555M287M268M1.071.28%39.1117.195.5947.7448.3547.1018.3219.76%168.87
1971568M294M274M1.071.32%38.8216.735.5248.4048.9647.8218.3419.99%172.73
1972581M301M280M1.071.37%38.5216.285.4449.0649.5648.5518.4120.32%176.75
1973595M308M287M1.071.41%38.2015.845.3649.7250.1549.2918.5020.65%180.91
1974609M315M293M1.081.46%37.8715.415.2850.3750.7250.0318.6120.99%185.18
1975623M323M300M1.081.50%37.5314.995.1951.0151.2850.7618.7421.33%189.53
1976638M330M307M1.081.55%37.2114.605.1151.6351.8151.4718.8021.68%193.95
1977652M338M314M1.081.59%36.9114.235.0352.2252.3352.1418.8822.03%198.45
1978667M346M322M1.081.64%36.6413.894.9652.7952.8352.7818.9822.38%203.04
1979683M354M329M1.081.68%36.4013.584.8953.3253.3153.3719.0922.74%207.75
1980699M362M337M1.081.72%36.1713.294.8353.8153.7653.9119.2023.10%212.60
1981715M371M345M1.081.76%35.9213.034.7754.2754.1854.4019.2723.42%217.60
1982732M380M353M1.081.79%35.6312.794.7054.6954.5854.8419.3423.65%222.73
1983749M388M361M1.081.81%35.2912.564.6455.0754.9555.2419.4223.88%227.96
1984767M398M369M1.081.83%34.8912.344.5655.4455.3055.6219.5124.11%233.25
1985784M407M378M1.081.84%34.4212.124.4855.8055.6555.9919.6124.35%238.58
1986802M416M386M1.081.85%33.8911.894.4056.1755.9956.3719.6624.59%243.94
1987820M425M394M1.081.86%33.3211.654.3156.5556.3556.7819.7424.82%249.33
1988837M434M403M1.081.87%32.7311.404.2256.9656.7357.2319.8425.06%254.74
1989855M444M411M1.081.88%32.1211.144.1357.4057.1257.7119.9625.31%260.17
1990873M453M420M1.081.90%31.5210.864.0557.8757.5458.2320.0925.55%265.63
1991891M463M429M1.081.92%30.9210.593.9658.3557.9758.7720.2025.78%271.10
1992909M472M437M1.081.94%30.3510.323.8858.8558.4159.3420.3425.98%276.59
1993927M482M446M1.081.96%29.7910.063.8059.3558.8459.9020.4826.19%282.09
1994946M491M454M1.081.98%29.269.813.7259.8459.2860.4520.6426.40%287.63
1995964M501M463M1.082.00%28.759.583.6560.3259.7060.9920.8126.61%293.20
1996982M511M472M1.082.02%28.269.373.5860.7860.1261.5020.9626.82%298.81
19971001M520M481M1.082.03%27.799.183.5161.2360.5361.9921.1327.03%304.45
19981019M530M490M1.082.04%27.329.003.4561.6760.9462.4621.3127.24%310.10
19991038M540M498M1.082.04%26.868.843.3862.0961.3462.9121.5027.45%315.75
20001057M549M507M1.082.04%26.408.693.3162.5161.7363.3321.7127.67%321.38
20011075M559M516M1.082.03%25.948.563.2462.9162.1263.7521.9027.92%326.99
20021093M569M525M1.082.02%25.498.433.1863.3062.5164.1522.1128.24%332.56
20031112M578M533M1.082.01%25.038.313.1163.7062.9064.5422.3328.57%338.10
20041130M588M542M1.082.00%24.578.193.0464.1063.2964.9422.5528.90%343.60
20051148M597M551M1.081.99%24.098.072.9764.5063.6965.3622.7929.24%349.07
20061165M606M559M1.081.96%23.567.962.9064.9264.0965.7923.0229.57%354.51
20071183M616M568M1.081.93%23.007.842.8265.3564.5066.2523.2729.91%359.90
20081201M625M576M1.081.90%22.397.722.7465.7964.9166.7423.5330.25%365.21
20091218M634M584M1.081.86%21.767.602.6666.2465.3267.2323.8030.59%370.40
20101234M642M592M1.081.82%21.117.492.5866.6965.7267.7324.1030.93%375.44
20111250M650M600M1.081.77%20.507.392.5167.1366.1268.2224.4131.28%380.31
20121266M658M607M1.081.73%19.927.312.4467.5566.4968.6824.7431.63%385.02
20131281M666M615M1.081.68%19.427.252.3867.9366.8469.1125.0832.00%389.60
20141296M674M622M1.081.63%18.987.212.3368.2967.1769.4925.4332.38%394.09
20151310M681M629M1.081.59%18.637.192.3068.6167.4769.8425.7732.78%398.51
20161325M689M636M1.081.55%18.337.202.2768.9067.7570.1426.1133.18%402.88
20171339M696M643M1.081.51%18.087.212.2469.1768.0070.4326.4433.60%407.19
20181353M703M650M1.081.47%17.867.232.2269.4268.2470.6926.7634.03%411.44
20191366M710M656M1.081.43%17.647.272.2069.6668.4670.9527.0934.47%415.63
20201380M717M663M1.081.43%17.647.272.2069.6668.4670.9527.4334.93%419.76
20211393M724M669M1.081.43%17.647.272.2069.6668.4670.9527.7335.39%423.84

India Population Projections

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YearTotalMaleFemaleSex RatioGrowth rateBirth rateDeath rateFerti­lity rate
Life exp., total
Life expectancy
Life exp., maleLife exp., femaleMedian AgeUrbani­zation
Density, people / km2
Density, people/km2
20221407M731M676M1.08???????28.0535.87%427.86
20231420M737M682M1.08???????28.3836.36%431.82
20241432M744M689M1.08???????28.7136.87%435.72
20251445M750M695M1.081.18%16.457.542.0970.9569.6372.3929.0437.38%439.54
20261457M757M701M1.081.14%16.257.612.0871.1469.8072.6029.3737.91%443.28
20271469M763M707M1.081.09%16.057.682.0671.3369.9772.8229.7038.45%446.93
20281481M769M713M1.081.05%15.847.742.0571.5170.1373.0330.0339.00%450.51
20291493M774M718M1.081.00%15.647.812.0371.7070.3073.2530.3639.57%453.99
20301504M780M724M1.080.96%15.447.882.0271.8970.4773.4630.7040.14%457.37
20311514M785M729M1.080.91%15.227.962.0172.0670.6273.6531.0240.73%460.65
20321525M790M734M1.080.86%14.998.051.9972.2370.7673.8431.3441.32%463.82
20331535M795M740M1.080.82%14.778.131.9872.3970.9174.0331.6641.93%466.88
20341545M800M744M1.070.77%14.548.221.9672.5671.0574.2231.9942.55%469.81
20351554M805M749M1.070.73%14.328.301.9572.7371.2074.4132.3343.17%472.60
20361562M809M754M1.070.68%14.108.401.9472.8971.3474.5932.6543.80%475.25
20371571M813M758M1.070.63%13.888.491.9373.0471.4874.7732.9744.44%477.76
20381578M816M762M1.070.59%13.668.591.9173.2071.6274.9433.3045.08%480.13
20391586M820M766M1.070.55%13.448.681.9073.3571.7675.1233.6345.72%482.36
20401593M823M770M1.070.51%13.228.781.8973.5171.9075.3033.9746.37%484.46
20411599M826M773M1.070.47%13.058.881.8873.6672.0475.4634.3047.01%486.41
20421605M829M776M1.070.43%12.888.981.8773.8172.1775.6234.6447.66%488.23
20431611M831M779M1.070.40%12.729.091.8673.9672.3175.7934.9748.31%489.92
20441616M834M782M1.070.37%12.559.191.8574.1172.4475.9535.2948.96%491.49
20451621M836M785M1.060.33%12.389.291.8474.2672.5876.1135.6049.60%492.95
20461625M838M787M1.060.31%12.279.401.8374.4072.7276.2635.9050.25%494.29
20471629M839M790M1.060.28%12.169.511.8274.5572.8576.4236.1850.90%495.53
20481633M841M792M1.060.25%12.059.611.8274.6972.9976.5736.4751.55%496.66
20491636M842M794M1.060.23%11.949.721.8174.8473.1276.7336.7652.19%497.68
20501639M843M796M1.060.20%11.839.831.8074.9873.2676.8837.0552.84%498.60

Highest City Populations in India

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RankCityPopulation, Urban AreaPopulation, City
1Delhi31,455,36010,927,986
2Mumbai20,747,22512,691,836
3Calcutta15,012,2254,631,392
4Bangalore12,900,0225,104,047
5Madras11,316,3834,328,063
6Hyderabad10,350,6913,597,816
7Ahmadabad8,312,8043,719,710
8Surat7,584,0222,894,504
9Poona6,863,18048,837
10Jaipur4,038,5192,711,758
11Lucknow3,792,1282,472,011
12Calicut3,799,646439,922
13Malappuram3,676,20361,743
14Thrissur3,257,699325,110
15Cochin3,227,218604,696
16Kanpur3,161,9402,823,249
17Indore3,142,5941,837,041
18Nagpur2,954,4892,228,018
19Coimbatore2,882,504959,823
20Thiruvananthapuram2,723,677784,153
21Patna2,496,1801,599,920
22Bhopal2,464,5711,599,914
23Agra2,278,0301,430,055
24Vadodara2,246,2561,409,476
25Kannur2,245,49662,836
26Visakhapatnam2,241,7221,063,178
27Nashik2,140,5711,289,497
28Vijayawada2,123,729874,587
29Kollam1,968,436394,163
30Rajkot1,951,2631,177,362
31Ludhiana1,893,6321,545,368
32Madurai1,775,865909,908
33Meerut1,737,8651,223,184
34Raipur1,720,49627,702
35Benares1,701,6321,164,404
36Jamshedpur1,639,556616,338
37Srinagar1,633,098975,857
38Aurangabad1,612,94795,929
39Tiruppur1,578,421397,521
40Jodhpur1,521,714921,476
41Ranchi1,486,098846,454
42Jabalpur1,478,7821,030,168
43Asansol1,461,090504,271
44Kota1,444,564763,088
45Allahabad1,421,4741,073,438
46Gwalior1,419,865882,458
47Amritsar1,407,0901,092,450
48Dhanbad1,353,241219,636
49Bareilly1,295,556745,435
50Aligarh1,255,481753,207
51Mysore1,242,707868,313
52Moradabad1,242,789721,139
53Durg1,230,241255,283
54Bhubaneswar1,203,556762,243
55Tiruchirappalli1,187,241775,484
56Chandigarh1,175,474960,787
57Hubli1,143,165840,214
58Gauhati1,140,549899,094
59Salem1,130,782778,396
60Saharanpur1,107,639484,873
61Jalandhar1,080,165785,178
62Siliguri1,068,406515,574
63Solapur1,045,391997,281
64Warangal990,090557,802
65Dehradun950,398522,081
66Guntur881,474530,577
67Bhiwandi878,624707,035
68Puducherry862,165227,411
69Firozabad853,707306,409
70Cherthala812,40645,827
71Bikaner791,624576,015
72Nellore779,782404,158
73Gorakhpur769,774767,000
74Amravati769,008603,837
75Cuttack755,083580,000
76Muzaffarnagar749,707349,706
77Kottayam752,25659,437
78Belgaum742,008428,720
79Malegaon735,624435,362
80Kayamkulam736,86564,183
81Mangalore727,391417,387
82Bhavnagar715,699554,978
83Jammu711,158465,567
84Nanded Waghala710,932-
85Tirupati713,015250,821
86Gulbarga692,624483,615
87Durgapur690,699518,872
88Kurnool692,474460,184
89Jhansi657,391412,927
90Jamnagar652,850492,056
91Erode652,008147,270
92Bokaro Steel City644,46639,305
93Raurkela633,466536,450
94Kolhapur629,466516,142
95Ajmer624,466517,911
96Ujjain621,391457,346
97Patiala622,549329,224
98Bilaspur620,93239,873
99Mathura607,624330,511
100Agartala601,165203,264
101Imphal599,549223,523
102Sangli594,466592,000
103Udaipur583,39130,264
104Vellore582,083177,081
105Tuticorin583,241410,760
106Jalgaon580,699429,298
107Gaya579,391423,692
108Tirunelveli576,466574,000
109Panipat563,699292,808
110Rajahmundry554,466304,804
111Bellary538,008336,681
112Hosur539,789103,724
113Kakinada525,774292,923
114Davanagere523,774-
115Muzaffarpur519,699333,200
116Purnia502,857198,453
117Begusarai503,323103,060
118Latur493,391348,967
119Bhagalpur489,466361,548
120Rohtak480,083317,245
121Shillong475,699132,842
122Bhilwara466,391326,431
123Anantapur464,699240,442
124Yamunanagar460,158208,931
125Akola456,233428,857
126Kadapa458,699127,010
127Sagar447,46653,150
128English Bazar444,008170,039
129Alwar442,083283,228
130Hardwar443,008186,079
131Rampur437,77426,257
132Raniganj438,782131,261
133Bijapur427,083271,064
134Korba425,850419,146
135Barddhaman424,466301,725
136Baharampur422,699180,547
137Brahmapur417,158324,726
138Dhule415,233366,980
139Karnal417,699225,049
140Dhulian417,85777,070
141Ahmadnagar409,233367,140
142Gandhidham410,932166,388
143Junagadh408,774184,447
144Karimnagar409,391228,745
145Ottappalam408,54950,913
146Dindigul399,083200,797
147Bihar Sharif384,774244,230
148Anand383,774138,009
149Shimoga382,850319,550
150Aizawl380,466265,331
151Bathinda379,774242,800
152Shahjahanpur377,925320,434
153Palakkad378,466132,728
154Santipur378,774149,983
155Ichalkaranji373,541274,383
156Tumkur370,158307,359
157Deoghar372,549-
158Maunath Bhanjan369,774246,050
159Roorkee371,008103,894
160Ranipet369,083-
161Parbhani366,850289,629
162Dewas365,158261,218
163Hisar360,541296,436
164Karur361,69976,915
165Morvi360,391118,022
166Chandrapur357,233328,351
167Darbhanga357,541287,150
168Habra355,850139,297
169Kanhangad357,00868,450
170Farrukhabad353,158241,152
171Satna352,158257,778
172Jalna348,850262,034
173Khammam349,466170,503
174Navsari346,850171,109
175Thanjavur343,541219,571
176Haldwani343,391139,497
177Arrah339,466223,676
178Nizamabad338,233305,438
179Kharagpur330,92527,492
180Hapur328,850242,920
181Ratlam322,541236,843

Map of India

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