India Population

Population now

1,415,996,156
  • World: 2nd
  • Asia: 2nd
Male:735,536,208(51.94 %)
Female:680,459,229(48.06 %)
Births in 2023:17,199,163
Deaths in 2023:7,594,171

Life expectancy & Rates (2023)

Male:69.25 years
Female:71.91 years
Total:70.53 years
Median Age:28.38 years
Birth Rate:16.85
Death Rate:7.44
Growth Rate:1.26 %
Fertility Rate:2.13

Population Data Graphs

  • Total population
  • Birth & Death rate
  • Life expectancy
  • Median Age
  • Population structure (mid 2023)
  • Urbanization

India Population Review

The vibrant and bustling country of India has a long, rich history and an ever-expanding population. India’s 2020 population is estimated at 1.38 billion, which makes it the second most populated country in the world behind China. Located in South Asia, India is bordered by Pakistan, Bhutan, Nepal, China, Bangladesh, and Myanmar and has the Bay of Bengal, the Indian Ocean, and the Arabian Sea at its borders. The country is famous for its culture, its spices and food, and its large Hindi movie industry, Bollywood.

India’s skyrocketing growth rate

So many people in the world live in the country of India that, on average, 1 in 6 of every person alive on Earth is living in India. This rapidly expanding nation is well on its way to becoming the world’s most populated country, unseating China by 2027. In only 40 years, India has doubled in size. In fact, in ten years alone (from 2001 to 2011) India’s population grew by 17.7%, or about 18.5 million people. While India’s growth has dropped slightly from 2% per year in 2000, it is still predicted to continue growing at 1.4% for 2020, and beyond.

Population density and space to roam

India covers over 3.2 million kilometres, which makes it the seventh largest country in the world. However, its population far outstrips most of the largest countries. What this means is that India has one of the higher population densities in the world. As a whole, there are 420 people per square kilometer in India, which makes it the 31st most densely populated country. Within some of India’s cities, that density goes up exponentially. In India’s largest city of Mumbai, for example, the population density is 21,000 people per square kilometer.

India’s massive cities

There are 4,000 cities and towns in India. Forty-six of those cities have a population of over 1 million people, while eleven of them have a population greater than 3 million and are considered Mega Cities. The three largest cities in the country are Mumbai, Delhi, and Bangalore, each of which has a population of over 8 million people.

Mumbai is by far the largest city with an estimated population of 22 million people, which is a greater population than the entire country of Mali. It is also the fourth most populous city in the world and the largest in terms of trade activity and business as well. Like many parts of India, Mumbai has experience a growth explosion over the past two decades. This rapid population growth is attributed to migration as people seek better employment opportunities.

Ongoing issues with poverty

India’s booming growth has done nothing for the country’s poverty issues. It’s estimated that 37% of their population of 1.38 people are below the international poverty line, which is below $1.25 a day. Data from the World Health Organization have shown that almost 100,000 people die every year in India due to health issues caused by diarrhea. This stems from inadequate sanitation, nutrition and unsafe water. Families struggle to grow enough crops to feed themselves and their children, which leads to the a third of the world’s malnourished children living in India. It’s estimated that 46% of all children under three are too small for their age range.

Tech jobs on the rise

While India continues to struggle to fight its poverty issue and find adequate housing and food for its people, one place it does not struggle is in the tech industry. In 2020, India’s IT industry will surge to two million new additions around the world, with 13% of those jobs being in India itself. Driving this growth is the adoption of emerging technologies, AI, machine learning and automation robotics. India also continues to spend money on educating employees to expand their current skillset. India’s tech industry currently provides jobs for four million people and only continues to grow.

Review Updated: April 29, 2020

India Population History

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YearTotalMaleFemaleSex RatioGrowth rateBirth rateDeath rateFerti­lity rate
Life exp., total
Life expectancy
Life exp., maleLife exp., femaleMedian AgeUrbani­zation
Density, people / km2
Density, people/km2
1960451M233M218M1.070.89%42.0022.185.9141.4242.2740.5319.1817.92%137.04
1961460M237M222M1.070.93%41.7521.655.9042.0342.8741.1319.0718.03%139.81
1962469M242M227M1.070.96%41.4821.135.8942.6443.4841.7518.9318.22%142.68
1963479M247M231M1.071.00%41.2020.615.8843.2544.0842.3818.7718.41%145.65
1964489M253M236M1.071.03%40.9020.105.8643.8744.6943.0218.6418.60%148.69
1965499M258M241M1.071.07%40.5919.595.8344.5045.2943.6718.5518.79%151.82
1966510M264M246M1.071.11%40.2719.095.7945.1445.9044.3418.4118.98%155.02
1967520M269M251M1.071.15%39.9718.605.7545.7846.5145.0118.3319.17%158.29
1968532M275M256M1.071.19%39.6718.125.7046.4347.1245.7018.2919.37%161.67
1969543M281M262M1.071.23%39.3917.655.6547.0847.7446.3918.2819.56%165.19
1970555M287M268M1.071.28%39.1117.195.5947.7448.3547.1018.3219.76%168.87
1971568M294M274M1.071.32%38.8216.735.5248.4048.9647.8218.3419.99%172.73
1972581M301M280M1.071.37%38.5216.285.4449.0649.5648.5518.4120.32%176.75
1973595M308M287M1.071.41%38.2015.845.3649.7250.1549.2918.5020.65%180.91
1974609M315M293M1.081.46%37.8715.415.2850.3750.7250.0318.6120.99%185.18
1975623M323M300M1.081.50%37.5314.995.1951.0151.2850.7618.7421.33%189.53
1976638M330M307M1.081.55%37.2114.605.1151.6351.8151.4718.8021.68%193.95
1977652M338M314M1.081.59%36.9114.235.0352.2252.3352.1418.8822.03%198.45
1978667M346M322M1.081.64%36.6413.894.9652.7952.8352.7818.9822.38%203.04
1979683M354M329M1.081.68%36.4013.584.8953.3253.3153.3719.0922.74%207.75
1980699M362M337M1.081.72%36.1713.294.8353.8153.7653.9119.2023.10%212.60
1981715M371M345M1.081.76%35.9213.034.7754.2754.1854.4019.2723.42%217.60
1982732M380M353M1.081.79%35.6312.794.7054.6954.5854.8419.3423.65%222.73
1983749M388M361M1.081.81%35.2912.564.6455.0754.9555.2419.4223.88%227.96
1984767M398M369M1.081.83%34.8912.344.5655.4455.3055.6219.5124.11%233.25
1985784M407M378M1.081.84%34.4212.124.4855.8055.6555.9919.6124.35%238.58
1986802M416M386M1.081.85%33.8911.894.4056.1755.9956.3719.6624.59%243.94
1987820M425M394M1.081.86%33.3211.654.3156.5556.3556.7819.7424.82%249.33
1988837M434M403M1.081.87%32.7311.404.2256.9656.7357.2319.8425.06%254.74
1989855M444M411M1.081.88%32.1211.144.1357.4057.1257.7119.9625.31%260.17
1990873M453M420M1.081.90%31.5210.864.0557.8757.5458.2320.0925.55%265.63
1991891M463M429M1.081.92%30.9210.593.9658.3557.9758.7720.2025.78%271.10
1992909M472M437M1.081.94%30.3510.323.8858.8558.4159.3420.3425.98%276.59
1993927M482M446M1.081.96%29.7910.063.8059.3558.8459.9020.4826.19%282.09
1994946M491M454M1.081.98%29.269.813.7259.8459.2860.4520.6426.40%287.63
1995964M501M463M1.082.00%28.759.583.6560.3259.7060.9920.8126.61%293.20
1996982M511M472M1.082.02%28.269.373.5860.7860.1261.5020.9626.82%298.81
19971001M520M481M1.082.03%27.799.183.5161.2360.5361.9921.1327.03%304.45
19981019M530M490M1.082.04%27.329.003.4561.6760.9462.4621.3127.24%310.10
19991038M540M498M1.082.04%26.868.843.3862.0961.3462.9121.5027.45%315.75
20001057M549M507M1.082.04%26.408.693.3162.5161.7363.3321.7127.67%321.38
20011075M559M516M1.082.03%25.948.563.2462.9162.1263.7521.9027.92%326.99
20021093M569M525M1.082.02%25.498.433.1863.3062.5164.1522.1128.24%332.56
20031112M578M533M1.082.01%25.038.313.1163.7062.9064.5422.3328.57%338.10
20041130M588M542M1.082.00%24.578.193.0464.1063.2964.9422.5528.90%343.60
20051148M597M551M1.081.99%24.098.072.9764.5063.6965.3622.7929.24%349.07
20061165M606M559M1.081.96%23.567.962.9064.9264.0965.7923.0229.57%354.51
20071183M616M568M1.081.93%23.007.842.8265.3564.5066.2523.2729.91%359.90
20081201M625M576M1.081.90%22.397.722.7465.7964.9166.7423.5330.25%365.21
20091218M634M584M1.081.86%21.767.602.6666.2465.3267.2323.8030.59%370.40
20101234M642M592M1.081.82%21.117.492.5866.6965.7267.7324.1030.93%375.44
20111250M650M600M1.081.77%20.507.392.5167.1366.1268.2224.4131.28%380.31
20121266M658M607M1.081.73%19.927.312.4467.5566.4968.6824.7431.63%385.02
20131281M666M615M1.081.68%19.427.252.3867.9366.8469.1125.0832.00%389.60
20141296M674M622M1.081.63%18.987.212.3368.2967.1769.4925.4332.38%394.09
20151310M681M629M1.081.59%18.637.192.3068.6167.4769.8425.7732.78%398.51
20161325M689M636M1.081.55%18.337.202.2768.9067.7570.1426.1133.18%402.88
20171339M696M643M1.081.51%18.087.212.2469.1768.0070.4326.4433.60%407.19
20181353M703M650M1.081.47%17.867.232.2269.4268.2470.6926.7634.03%411.44
20191366M710M656M1.081.43%17.647.272.2069.6668.4670.9527.0934.47%415.63
20201380M717M663M1.081.39%17.447.302.1869.8968.6871.2027.4334.93%419.76
20211393M724M669M1.081.39%17.447.302.1869.8968.6871.2027.7335.39%423.84
20221407M731M676M1.081.39%17.447.302.1869.8968.6871.2028.0535.87%427.86
20231420M737M682M1.081.26%16.857.442.1370.5369.2571.9128.3836.36%431.82

India Population Projections

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YearTotalMaleFemaleSex RatioGrowth rateBirth rateDeath rateFerti­lity rate
Life exp., total
Life expectancy
Life exp., maleLife exp., femaleMedian AgeUrbani­zation
Density, people / km2
Density, people/km2
20241432M744M689M1.081.22%16.657.492.1170.7469.4472.1528.7136.87%435.72
20251445M750M695M1.081.18%16.457.542.0970.9569.6372.3929.0437.38%439.54
20261457M757M701M1.081.14%16.257.612.0871.1469.8072.6029.3737.91%443.28
20271469M763M707M1.081.09%16.057.682.0671.3369.9772.8229.7038.45%446.93
20281481M769M713M1.081.05%15.847.742.0571.5170.1373.0330.0339.00%450.51
20291493M774M718M1.081.00%15.647.812.0371.7070.3073.2530.3639.57%453.99
20301504M780M724M1.080.96%15.447.882.0271.8970.4773.4630.7040.14%457.37
20311514M785M729M1.080.91%15.227.962.0172.0670.6273.6531.0240.73%460.65
20321525M790M734M1.080.86%14.998.051.9972.2370.7673.8431.3441.32%463.82
20331535M795M740M1.080.82%14.778.131.9872.3970.9174.0331.6641.93%466.88
20341545M800M744M1.070.77%14.548.221.9672.5671.0574.2231.9942.55%469.81
20351554M805M749M1.070.73%14.328.301.9572.7371.2074.4132.3343.17%472.60
20361562M809M754M1.070.68%14.108.401.9472.8971.3474.5932.6543.80%475.25
20371571M813M758M1.070.63%13.888.491.9373.0471.4874.7732.9744.44%477.76
20381578M816M762M1.070.59%13.668.591.9173.2071.6274.9433.3045.08%480.13
20391586M820M766M1.070.55%13.448.681.9073.3571.7675.1233.6345.72%482.36
20401593M823M770M1.070.51%13.228.781.8973.5171.9075.3033.9746.37%484.46
20411599M826M773M1.070.47%13.058.881.8873.6672.0475.4634.3047.01%486.41
20421605M829M776M1.070.43%12.888.981.8773.8172.1775.6234.6447.66%488.23
20431611M831M779M1.070.40%12.729.091.8673.9672.3175.7934.9748.31%489.92
20441616M834M782M1.070.37%12.559.191.8574.1172.4475.9535.2948.96%491.49
20451621M836M785M1.060.33%12.389.291.8474.2672.5876.1135.6049.60%492.95
20461625M838M787M1.060.31%12.279.401.8374.4072.7276.2635.9050.25%494.29
20471629M839M790M1.060.28%12.169.511.8274.5572.8576.4236.1850.90%495.53
20481633M841M792M1.060.25%12.059.611.8274.6972.9976.5736.4751.55%496.66
20491636M842M794M1.060.23%11.949.721.8174.8473.1276.7336.7652.19%497.68
20501639M843M796M1.060.20%11.839.831.8074.9873.2676.8837.0552.84%498.60

Highest City Populations in India

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  • Top 20
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RankCityPopulation, Urban AreaPopulation, City
1Delhi31,817,30810,927,986
2Mumbai20,878,66512,691,836
3Calcutta15,089,0394,631,392
4Bangalore13,072,7298,443,675
5Madras11,427,6904,681,087
6Hyderabad10,459,5336,809,970
7Ahmadabad8,394,6416,357,693
8Surat7,701,3844,591,246
9Poona6,936,70048,837
10Jaipur4,079,1802,711,758
11Calicut3,870,700550,440
12Lucknow3,828,9902,472,011
13Malappuram3,757,831101,386
14Thrissur3,312,221315,957
15Cochin3,270,651604,696
16Indore3,182,0231,837,041
17Kanpur3,179,6032,823,249
18Nagpur2,976,6692,228,018
19Coimbatore2,913,9242,136,916
20Thiruvananthapuram2,764,337784,153
21Patna2,515,7931,599,920
22Bhopal2,488,7021,599,914
23Agra2,299,3881,430,055
24Kannur2,269,42162,836
25Visakhapatnam2,263,3881,063,178
26Vadodara2,264,6361,822,221
27Nashik2,163,9831,289,497
28Vijayawada2,150,016874,587
29Kollam2,002,114367,107
30Rajkot1,973,5451,390,640
31Ludhiana1,908,0081,545,368
32Madurai1,789,7271,465,625
33Meerut1,752,4461,223,184
34Raipur1,743,70227,702
35Benares1,713,8511,164,404
36Jamshedpur1,652,2891,339,438
37Srinagar1,649,322975,857
38Aurangabad1,630,19895,929
39Tiruppur1,602,140963,173
40Jodhpur1,537,322921,476
41Ranchi1,500,8841,120,374
42Jabalpur1,489,2561,030,168
43Asansol1,471,256504,271
44Kota1,461,917763,088
45Gwalior1,433,008882,458
46Allahabad1,432,2561,073,438
47Amritsar1,417,9751,092,450
48Dhanbad1,362,3801,196,214
49Bareilly1,308,289745,435
50Aligarh1,269,446753,207
51Moradabad1,257,165721,139
52Mysore1,253,694868,313
53Durg1,239,380255,283
54Bhubaneswar1,217,008762,243
55Tiruchirappalli1,195,6611,022,518
56Chandigarh1,184,818960,787
57Hubli1,152,099840,214
58Gauhati1,149,380899,094
59Salem1,139,818917,414
60Saharanpur1,123,041484,873
61Jalandhar1,089,818785,178
62Siliguri1,082,165515,574
63Solapur1,051,347997,281
64Warangal1,000,256557,802
65Dehradun960,256522,081
66Guntur890,818530,577
67Bhiwandi885,504874,032
68Puducherry871,099657,209
69Firozabad863,256306,409
70Cherthala826,88445,827
71Bikaner797,785576,015
72Nellore788,818404,158
73Kottayam768,47955,374
74Amravati774,347603,837
75Gorakhpur774,190777,000
76Muzaffarnagar759,975349,706
77Cuttack759,909580,000
78Kayamkulam748,57064,183
79Belgaum748,066428,720
80Malegaon743,223435,362
81Mangalore732,628417,387
82Tirupati722,256250,821
83Bhavnagar720,628605,882
84Nanded Waghala717,504-
85Jammu714,752465,567
86Kurnool700,380460,184
87Gulbarga698,785483,615
88Durgapur695,628518,872
89Jhansi662,628412,927
90Erode658,066521,891
91Jamnagar656,752492,056
92Bokaro Steel City649,190564,319
93Raurkela638,190536,450
94Kolhapur632,752516,142
95Patiala629,223329,224
96Bilaspur628,22339,873
97Ajmer627,752517,911
98Ujjain625,909457,346
99Mathura613,785330,511
100Agartala609,380203,264
101Imphal606,223223,523
102Sangli599,190601,214
103Tuticorin590,223410,760
104Udaipur588,62830,264
105Vellore586,909484,690
106Jalgaon585,628429,298
107Gaya583,909423,692
108Tirunelveli580,471583,000
109Panipat568,628292,808
110Hosur552,727229,528
111Rajahmundry558,471376,333
112Bellary542,628336,681
113Kakinada529,471292,923
114Davanagere527,471-
115Muzaffarpur525,347333,200
116Begusarai512,975103,060
117Purnia509,942198,453
118Latur498,628348,967
119Bhagalpur493,471361,548
120Rohtak484,909317,245
121Shillong480,628132,842
122Anantapur470,347240,442
123Bhilwara470,909326,431
124Yamunanagar464,471208,931
125Kadapa462,909127,010
126Akola457,876428,857
127Sagar451,47153,150
128Raniganj447,099131,261
129English Bazar448,628170,039
130Hardwar448,347186,079
131Alwar446,909283,228
132Rampur441,47126,257
133Bijapur431,190271,064
134Korba429,033419,146
135Baharampur426,909180,547
136Barddhaman427,752301,725
137Dhulian424,94277,070
138Karnal421,909225,049
139Gandhidham417,504166,388
140Brahmapur419,314324,726
141Dhule418,314366,980
142Ottappalam415,22350,913
143Karimnagar414,628228,745
144Junagadh412,471184,447
145Ahmadnagar410,876367,140
146Dindigul403,909292,512
147Anand388,190138,009
148Bihar Sharif388,471244,230
149Aizawl384,471265,331
150Bathinda384,190242,800
151Shimoga385,314319,550
152Palakkad382,471132,728
153Santipur382,471149,983
154Deoghar379,223203,123
155Shahjahanpur380,595320,434
156Roorkee376,347103,894
157Ichalkaranji376,314274,383
158Ranipet373,909264,330
159Maunath Bhanjan373,471246,050
160Tumkur373,033307,359
161Parbhani370,033289,629
162Dewas368,752261,218
163Karur367,347234,191
164Morvi364,909118,022
165Hisar364,033296,436
166Kanhangad361,62868,450
167Darbhanga360,314287,150
168Chandrapur359,595328,351
169Habra358,314139,297
170Satna355,752257,778
171Farrukhabad355,314241,152
172Khammam353,471170,503
173Jalna352,033262,034
174Navsari350,033171,109
175Haldwani347,909139,497
176Thanjavur346,314291,067
177Arrah342,752223,676
178Nizamabad339,876305,438
179Kharagpur333,59527,492
180Hapur332,033242,920
181Ratlam325,314236,843

Map of India

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